Enforceable vs Valid Contracts - Explained
Valide Does Not Always Mean Enforceable
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What are valid contracts, enforceable contracts, void contracts, and voidable contracts?
There are several common characteristics of contracts that dictate whether a contract actually exists and whether it is enforceable in a court of law. The following vocabulary is important for characterizing these aspects of a contract.
Next Article: Voidability of a Contract Back to: CONTRACT LAW
What is a Valid and Invalid Contract?
A contract is valid when all of the elements essential to forming a legal contract are present. Conversely, a contract is invalid (or rather, there is no contract) if any of the essential elements of a contract are missing. The elements to forming a valid contract (offer, acceptance, consideration, and a meeting of the minds) are discussed further below.
- Example: One person announces that she will sell her cell phone for a reasonable price. Another person quickly says, I will buy it. In this case there is not a valid contract because there is not enough specificity in the consideration. As such, a critical piece of the contract is missing. While the parties might think they have a contract, if a challenge to the contract arises, a court is likely to hold it to be invalid.
What is an Enforceable and Unenforceable Contract?
An enforceable contract is one that can be enforced in court of law. That is, the law allows for enforcement of the contract. An enforceable contract must always be valid. A valid contract may, however, be unenforceable. That is, even though all of the essential elements of a contract are present, a court will not enforce the contract.
- Example: An oral contract may be valid, but the court will not enforce it because that specific type of contract is required to be in writing under the states law. Contracts that are required to be in writing are discussed further below.
Why do you think there is a distinction between a invalid contract and contract that is unenforceable against a party? Are there any reasons or justifications for treating them as one in the same?
Gayle arrives at work one morning and says to all of her colleagues, I am tired of my piece of junk car. I would sell it right now for $500. Bert thinks about Gayle's statement and determines that it would be a good buy. After lunch, Bert approaches Gayle and says, I will buy your car and extends $500 in cash. Gayle, surprised by Bert's actions, replies that she is not willing to sell her car. If Bert sues Gayle for breach of contract, what will be the likely result?
- For any agreement to be valid, it has to meet all the elements of a contract. This means that one person has to make an offer, the offer must be accepted, and there has to be a clear consideration being exchanged between the parties. The offer by the party should be clear and be distinguished from a remark or a simple statement or even a wish. In case of a sale for instance, the offer to sell must be made clearly as the owner willing to sell and not just a simple remark made out of frustration, boast, or jest. Gayle obviously made the statement out of frustration. There was never an offer to contract. Also, there is likely no meeting of the minds, and thus no offer or acceptance. Even if the court held that contract to be valid, it is likely not enforceable. Contracts for the sale of goods with a value of $500 or more must be in writing. If this were a valid contract, it does not meet this requirement and is thus unenforceable.
- What is a Contract?
- Contract Theory Definition
- Meeting of the Minds
- Doctrine of Utmost Good Faith
- Aleatory Contract Definition
- What are the sources of contract law?
- Restatement of Contracts
- Uniform Commercial Code
- Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)
- What is a Unilateral Contract vs a Bilateral Contract?
- What is an Express Contract vs an Implied Contract?
- What are the requirements to form a Contract (Offer, Acceptance, Consideration)?
- What is an Enforceable Contract vs. a Valid Contract?
- What is a Void Contract vs a Voidable Contract?
- Adhesion Contract
- What is Mental Capacity to contract?
- What is the requirement of a Lawful Purpose?
- What are common types of Voidable Contract?
- When does an offer to contact terminate?
- Counterparty Definition
- Mirror Image Rule?
- Rule for Sale of Goods
- Silence is Not Acceptance?
- Mailbox Rule
- Shrink-wrap Agreement Definition
- Click-Wrap Agreement Definition
- What is Consideration?
- What is Promissory Estoppel?
- When is a contract required to be in writing Statute of Frauds?
- What type of writing satisfies the statute of frauds?
- Exceptions to the Statute of Fraud
- Documents Under Seal
- Who Can Sign Contracts on Behalf of a Company?
- E-Sign Act
- Privity of Contract
- Who are third-party beneficiaries to a contract?
- What is assignment and delegation of a contract?
- When is a party's Duty of performance?
- Aleatory Contract
- What is an Executed contract vs an Executory contract?
- Inchoate Definition
- Evergreen Contract
- What is Performance, Substantial Performance, and Breach of a contract?
- What is performance of a Divisible Contract?
- When is a party's duty of performance discharged?
- What are conditions to Contract (Precedent & Subsequent)?
- Abandonment Option (Contract) Definition
- Cooling Off Rule Definition
- What is tender performance of a contract?
- What are Impossibility and Impracticability
- What is a Frustration of Purpose?
- Waiver or Release from Contract
- Accord and Satisfaction
- Force Majeure Clause
- What is a Breach of Contract?
- Repudiation (Contract) Definition
- Anticipatory Repudiation
- Acceleration Clause (Contracts) Definition
- What methods exist for resolving a breach?
- What remedies exist for a breach of contract?
- Rescission (Contract)
- Exculpatory Clause
- Hold Harmless Clause
- What is Efficient Breach?
- Organization of a Contract
- How to Read the Contract
- Contract Representations & Warranties
- Contract Covenants
- What rules does a court follow in interpreting a contract?
- Allonge Definition
- What is the Parol Evidence Rule?
- What is a complete integration vs a partial integration?
- Exceptions to the Parol Evidence Rule
- Patent and Latent Ambiguity in a Contract
- Service Level Agreement Definition
- Offtake Agreement