Battle of Forms in Contract Law - Explained
What is Required to Accept an Offer to Contract Under the Uniform Commercial Code?
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What is acceptance of an offer?
Acceptance of a contract is the assent of the offeree to the demands contained in the offerors offer. Acceptance of the contract varies depending upon whether the contract is unilateral or bilateral. An offeree accepts a bilateral contract by making the return promise demanded by the offeror. An offeree accepts a unilateral contact by undertaking the performance demanded by the offeror. The acceptance of an offer must meet a specific standard based upon the type of contract and the governing law. The standards that a specific type of contract must meet are as follows:
What is the Battle of the Forms Rule for Sale of Goods (UCC)?
The mirror-image rule does not apply to sales of goods under the UCC. The UCC recognizes that a contract is formed if the acceptance of the offer is unequivocal. That is, if it is obvious the parties agree on the primary or material terms of the agreement, an acceptance that changes or adds additional terms is a valid acceptance. The effect of different or additional terms depends on whether the parties are merchants. If either party is not a merchant, any additional or different terms are deemed suggestions for addition and do not become part of the contract. If both parties are merchants, the additional terms become a part of the contract, unless:
- they materially alter the contract,
- acceptance is conditioned on the specific terms of the offer, or
- the offeror specifically rejects the additional or different terms.
Example: I am a merchant and I offer to sell you goods. You respond that you are willing to purchase the goods, but I must provide you with a warranty. I send the goods and you accept them. If you are not a merchant, there is no warranty. That was simply a recommendation to be part of the contract. If you are a merchant, the warranty is a part of the contract.
- Note: In the above example, if we are both merchants, I could have excluded the warranty from the contract be expressly rejecting the warranty. If I sent the goods and you accepted them, you have agreed to the terms of my original offer.
Next Article: Silence as Acceptance of an Offer Back to: CONTRACT LAW
Why do you think the sale of goods employs a different rule than contracts to provide services? Can you think of any reasons for differentiating between the rules that apply to merchants of goods and non-merchants?
Darla is purchasing consumer goods from Isaacs business. Darla sends in a purchase order and the payment for the goods. Isaac sends the goods and a receipt that includes a clause stating that any disputes about the goods must be submitted to arbitration. Darla is not happy with the quality of the goods and she asks Isaac to return her money. When Isaac refuses she seeks to sue Isaac. What is the result in this situation?
- The details of acceptance of the offer under a contract of sale of goods is a special one. When the contract for the sale of goods involves a non-merchant of the goods being sold, no additional terms may be added by the accepting party. Any terms added by the accepting party are recommendations for addition to the contract and must be expressly agreed upon. In this case, Darla is a non-consumer. The addition of the arbitration dispute is a fundamental change to the contract. It would not be included in the agreement. Darla is able to sue Isaac.
- What is a Unilateral Contract vs a Bilateral Contract?
- What is an Express Contract vs an Implied Contract?
- What are the requirements to form a Contract (Offer, Acceptance, Consideration)?
- What is an Enforceable Contract vs. a Valid Contract?
- What is a Void Contract vs a Voidable Contract?
- Adhesion Contract
- What is Mental Capacity to contract?
- What is the requirement of a Lawful Purpose?
- What are common types of Voidable Contract?
- When does an offer to contact terminate?
- Counterparty Definition
- Mirror Image Rule?
- Rule for Sale of Goods
- Silence is Not Acceptance?
- Mailbox Rule
- Shrink-wrap Agreement Definition
- Click-Wrap Agreement Definition
- What is Consideration?
- What is Promissory Estoppel?
- When is a contract required to be in writing Statute of Frauds?
- What type of writing satisfies the statute of frauds?
- Exceptions to the Statute of Fraud
- Documents Under Seal
- Who Can Sign Contracts on Behalf of a Company?
- E-Sign Act
- Privity of Contract
- Who are third-party beneficiaries to a contract?
- What is assignment and delegation of a contract?
- What is Performance, Substantial Performance, and Breach of a contract?
- What is performance of a Divisible Contract?
- When is a party's duty of performance discharged?
- What is tender performance of a contract?
- What are Impossibility and Impracticability
- What is a Frustration of Purpose?
- Acceleration Clause (Contracts) Definition
- What is Efficient Breach?
- Organization of a Contract
- Contract Representations & Warranties
- Contract Covenants
- What rules does a court follow in interpreting a contract?
- What is the Parol Evidence Rule?
- What is a complete integration vs a partial integration?
- Exceptions to the Parol Evidence Rule
- Patent and Latent Ambiguity in a Contract
- Service Level Agreement Definition
- Offtake Agreement