U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Defined
The Department of Housing and Urban Development or HUD in short, is a government body formed in 1965 to oversee numerous housing and community development programs, including the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). The agency is responsible for providing affordable owner-occupancy opportunities, delivering secure and inexpensive leasing options and fighting homelessness. HUD also ensures that there exists no discrimination in the housing markets, and extends its support to the economically disadvantaged, and racial and ethnic minority populations.
A Little More on the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
The department was established in 1965, as a part of the Great Society program if President Lyndon Johnson. He signed the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act on September 9, 1965, and was it was implemented on January 13, 1966. It is a cabinet-level government agency and the secretary of the agency is appointed by the President of United States and approved by the simple majority vote in Senate.
The HUD is responsible for implementing the Fair Housing Act, which seeks to prevent discrimination in housing opportunities based on race, sex, religion and national origin. Moreover, the HUD is also authorized to investigate any instances of discrimination against prospective homebuyers or renters, refusal of sale or rent by proprietors and imposition of terms and conditions that it deems discriminatory.
They also intend to improve the quality of life of the Americans by improving housing opportunities. It also helps the homeowners to avoid foreclosure and in strengthening the community.
The agency also superintends the Community Development Block Grant, the Housing Choice Voucher program and several other welfare schemes that assist vulnerable populations with their accommodation requirements.
HUD also actively participates in disaster recovery in the Gulf Coast region. The agency actively collaborates with both government agencies and private groups to attain its housing and community development objectives.
HUD administers two departments, Federal Housing Administration and Federal Housing Finance Agency. The Federal Housing Administration runs the mortgage insurance program. The program provides a home loan to those who are not qualified for a conventional mortgage due to low credit score or a history of bankruptcy or foreclosure.
The Federal Housing Finance Agency is a regulatory authority that monitors Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, and the 11 federal home loan banks.
There are 16 offices under this department including the Office of Community Planning and Development, Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Office of Policy Development and Research and others.
HUD Grant Program
The Community Development Block Grant program uses federal grants to develop affordable housing options within communities to benefit low and middle-income groups. This and several other development programs ensure that such living spaces have access to public transportation, supermarkets, and other basic amenities.
The Housing Choice Voucher program, popularly known as Section 8, allows vulnerable or senior citizens, to choose homes in both subsidized and non-subsidized housing zones. However, to avail these perquisites, applicants, as well as their chosen properties, must conform to certain norms set by the government.
After identifying reasonably priced housing options, the housing authority finalizes the list of benefits that qualifying applicants can receive. Qualified applicants can then choose their type of home based on criteria such as income and family size. While handing out voucher benefits, the HUD usually subtracts 30 percent of the family’s monthly-adjusted income from the payment standard or the gross rent, depending on the case.
Families relocate homes for several reasons such as changes in income, employment status or expansion of the family. The voucher program seeks to facilitate such relocation by ensuring that relocating families do not lose their housing benefits. The program entails beneficiaries with vouchers signing lease agreements with property owners. In cases where residents avail subsidized housing, they are required to sign lease agreements with property managers.
References for Housing and Urban Development
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Moving to opportunity for fair housing demonstration program: Final impacts evaluation, Sanbonmatsu, L., Katz, L. F., Ludwig, J., Gennetian, L. A., Duncan, G. J., Kessler, R. C., … & Lindau, S. T. (2011). According to this report, the long-term impacts of a different housing mobility demonstration, on housing and neighbourhood conditions, economic self-sufficiency, educational outcomes, risk and criminal behaviour, moving to opportunity and the physical and mental health was studied in this paper. According to this study, the Moving of Opportunity (MTO) demonstration was granted by the United State Congress I section 152 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992. Although, the original authorizing legislation for the Moving of Opportunity was charged by the HUD.
Health in all policies: the role of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development and present and future challenges, Bostic, R. W., Thornton, R. L., Rudd, E. C., & Sternthal, M. J. (2012). Health Affairs, 31(9), 2130-2137. In this paper, a description on how the Obama administration-building on these outcomes and those that followed which includes the Great Society programs of President Lyndon Johnson-has approved a cross-sector approach that approves the health considerations into account when calculating the community and housing development policy. According to this study, the link between public health and the federal housing policy since the 19th century was analyzed. Also, some of these problems may be conquered by carrying out quality research on how community development policies and housing affect health.
The Department of Housing and Urban Development., Willmann, J. B. (1967). In this paper, the department of housing and urban development strategies was discussed as well as the advantages and disadvantages. Also, the method by which this department adopts was also discussed.
Housing and urban development indicators: A good idea whose time has returned, Malpezzi, S., & Mayo, S. K. (1997). Real Estate Economics, 25(1), 1-12. According to this academic paper, the issue of Real Estate Economics is dedicated to “housing and urban development indicators.” This paper, however, explains the role and importance of indicators in urban research. The most recent research on indicators is then described in this paper to include a number of important international research reports. This study also discusses the issues that are introduced and placed in the context of Housing and Urban Development Indicators.
Sustainable urban development? Low-cost housing challenges in South Africa, Goebel, A. (2007). Habitat International, 31(3-4), 291-302. According to this text, low-cost housing provision has been the main focus of the government in the post-apartheid urban South Africa area. The main aim of this paper is to explain cogent points which explain in details the sign in the new policy directions most importantly paying more attention to health-related problems as well as informal settlement upgrade programs. However, the main hindrance to an effective low-cost housing process which includes the macro-economic conditions, tolerating and working in consonance with historical legacies of class and race, the rapidity and scale of Urban growth and institutional challenges.
Privileged Places: Race, uneven development and the geography of opportunity in urban America, Squires, G. D., & Kubrin, C. E. (2005). Urban Studies, 42(1), 47-68. This study explains the main cause of bad environments as well as their costs to local residents and resident living in that same region. This paper also explains the most recent structures of uneven metropolitan development, the social vices that cause these patterns, their cost and potential panacea. During the course of identifying the role of human capital and individual choice, this paper studied mainly the act of making public policy decisions which are mostly related to the private sector activities in analyzing how race and place affect the opportunity structure of most metropolitan areas.
Segmentation in urban housing markets, Schnare, A. B., & Struyk, R. J. (1976). Journal of Urban Economics, 3(2), 146-166. This paper examines the hypothesis that most urban housing markets are divided in the manner of significantly different price per unit of the housing services that are typical to the defined submarkets. According to this paper, an unusually rich data particularly set for suburban Boston homes, single-family and the negligible difference in the prices of housing are explained. The conclusion of this paper is that the market is relentlessly working to eradicate price discounts and premiums.
Sustainable urban forms: Their typologies, models, and concepts, Jabareen, Y. R. (2006). Journal of planning education and research, 26(1), 38-52. This paper explains the sustainable urban forms and their basic designs. Also, it answers the question of whether or not certain urban forms contribute than others to sustainability. According to the analysis carried out in this paper, seven design concepts that are related to sustainable urban form were considered in this paper. These forms include; mixed land uses, compactness, density, passive solar design, greening, diversity and sustainable transport. This paper also suggests a Matrix of Sustainable Urban Form assists planners in evaluating the contribution of several urban forms of sustainability.
The theoretical basis for addressing poverty through mixed-income development, Joseph, M. L., Chaskin, R. J., & Webber, H. S. (2007). Urban Affairs Review, 42(3), 369-409. This paper explains the theoretical grassroots’ upon which the foundation of the rationale for mixed-income development as a way to eradicate urban poverty is built. According to this paper, the emphasis was laid to four major propositions that was developed from theories as regards social networks, culture and behaviour, the political economy of place and social control. Evidence of the test carried out in this paper shows that socioeconomic outcomes for the decrease in income residents may be improved via social networking, role modelling and building interactions.
Housing priorities, settlement patterns, and urban development in modernizing countries, Turner, J. C. (1968). Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 34(6), 354-363. In this study, an attempt to plan the processes involved in the development of cities in developed countries as well as to improve the housing standards was discussed. In most developed areas (urban centres), squatter developers are rampant in the growth of urban areas and they are also responsible for the reduction in the planner’s sphere of influence to those areas that are developed as a result of the dweller’s minorities and public institutions. In other to make this explanation easier, this study provided a model of a settlement process in transitional countries and presents it in other to effectively explain the dynamics of housing priorities, settlement patterns and urban development in modernizing countries.
National evaluation of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development lead-based paint hazard control grant program: study methods, Galke, W., Clark, S., McLaine, P., Bornschein, R., Wilson, J., Succop, P., … & Menrath, W. (2005). Environmental research, 98(3), 315-328. According to this research paper, the report of the overall (sum total) of research design and the data collection method adopted to carry out the evaluation of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development was analyzed. According to this study, the successful evaluation was as a result of the intervention of the HUD, the grantees and the evaluators. This study also provide the content for further future research that will explain the influence of the lead hazard control on the level of serial blood in children, the cost and nature of the lead hazard control as a result of the work done on dwellings and the experience of the grantees in meeting as regards the testing of the clearance requirements.
The Department of Housing and Urban Development and Cooperative Extension: A case for urban collaboration, Borich, T. O. (2001). Journal of Extension, 39(6), n6. This paper explains the activities of the Department of Housing and Urban Development as well as cooperative extension. This study also calls attention to some of the various potential problems as regards Housing by examining a scenario whereby the collaboration has also begun and detail point f future collaboration has also been analyzed.