Appellate Judges and Justices - Explained
What are the Dutties of Appellate Judges
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What are appellate court judges or justices?Appellate court judges serve as legal reviewers of trial court decisions. They determine whether the substance and procedure of the trial were Constitutionally adequate or sound.
Next Article: Right to Jury Trial - 6th and 7th Amendments Back to: US COURT SYSTEM
What are the duties of appellate court judges or justices?The duties of an appellate court judge are distinct from those of a trial judge.
How do Appellate Judges determine if the Law was applied correctly?
Discussion QuestionDo you think a procedural error justifies overturning a case? How prejudicial do you believe a procedural error must be to justify overturning the case? Do you think that overturning part of a jury finding and upholding another part is fair and just? Should the case always be overturned in the event of a substantive error? Do you feel that the entire case should be overturned if the court finds a substantive error?
- Some people would argue that a procedural error should never be grounds for overturning a trial court decision. Others would agree that it should only be grounds for overturning the trial court's decision if it is prejudicial to one of the parties. Whether overturning part or all of the decision is, yet again, a matter of opinion. Some might say that an error in one part spoils the entire decision. Others would agree that dissecting the court's decision and upholding the portion unrelated to the procedural error is appropriate. Substantive errors generally draw more consensus in support of overturning the case. It's likely more people would opine that overturning the entire case is appropriate in such a scenario, as the error of substantive law is far more likely to sway the jury's verdict and findings.
Practice QuestionLisa is a superior court judge in Alabama. In a criminal trial, the Defendant requests a trial by judge alone and agrees to forego his right to a jury trial. Lisa is concerned that serving as fact-finder in the case would cause issues for appeal and denies the Defendants request. During the criminal trial, defense counsel makes a motion to exclude from evidence a confession signed by the defendant. Lisa overrules the motion and allows the introduction of the confession to the jury at trial. At the end of the presentation of evidence, Lisa rejects the defense counsel's proposed jury instruction and delivers to the jury her own explanation of the substantive law to be applied in the case. On appeal, what legal issues will the appellate court review in this situation?
- The appellate court will review the record for procedural and substantive errors. Generally, a procedural error will only affect the decision if prejudicial to the defendant. In this case, allowing the jury to hear a confession that should be excluded on constitutional grounds would be highly prejudicial. Rejecting the defendant's request for a trial by judge alone is likely not a procedural error unless the local rules of evidence grant the defendant that right. The appellate court would also review the jury's instruction to determine if there was a substantive error in the manner in which the law was explained to the jury. An incorrect explanation would certain by prejudicial and result in the case being overturned and remanded.
How do Appellate Judges determine whether a law is Constitutional?
This generally means evaluating the law based upon the appropriate legal standard: Strict Scrutiny, Intermediate Scrutiny, or Rational Basis Standard.
Discussion QuestionWhat do you think of the role of the Supreme Court in reviewing the major cases and determining whether the law involved is constitutional. For example, consider The Affordable Care Act, Same-Sex marriage, Immigration Laws, Marijuana laws, etc. What has been or will be the role of the US Supreme Court in evaluating this law?
- This discussion goes back to ones view on the role of the court in shaping the law. A judicial activist would say that the role of the court is to step in an interpret these matters in light of public sentiment. Someone who believes in judicial restraint would say that these matters should be addressed by the legislature and not the courts.
Practice QuestionThe US Congress passes a law requiring all individuals in the United States to apply for a drivers license, regardless of whether the individual ever intends to drive a vehicle. Applying for the license takes time and costs money. Any individual who fails to apply for the license will face an income tax penalty. Proceeds from these penalties will be used to fund federal highway construction projects. Helen is not happy about the new law and files a federal court action against the director of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The trial court grants summary judgment to the FWHA Commissioner; so, Helen appeals to the Circuit Court of Appeals. In this scenario, what legal issues will the appellate court review?
- The court will review the constitutionality of the law that has been introduced. It will address the question of whether the Federal Government has the authority to mandate and individual go through the process of acquiring a drivers license. The Federal Governments authority is based upon the Taxing and Spending Power and the Commerce Clause. If the court rules that the Federal Government has this authority, it will apply a standard of review based upon whether a fundamental right is involved. Since that does not appear to be the case (as no enumerated right appears to be infringed, and there is no denial of due process), the courts decision will likely stand under the minimum rationality standard of review, as the law is closely related to a legitimate government interest.
How do Appellate Judges Develop the Common Law?
Discussion QuestionThe power of judicial review, arguably, makes the judiciary the most powerful branch of Government. How do you feel about the ability of the judiciary to develop law through the interpretation of the law as applied in a given case? Can you think of an example where judicial review overturned a lower courts decision?
- Some would argue that the ability of the judiciary to develop laws through interpretation of the law is to ensure that the letters and spirit of the law are upheld. This in other sense ensures that the fundamental principles of a nation are promoted. Others would argue that it usurps power that the Constitution reserves for the legislature. Two example of a case where an appellate court overturned a lower courts decision was in the case of Lochner V. New York (1905), which was later overturned by West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish (1937).
Practice QuestionAdam lives in rural Louisiana. One day, he navigates his small fishing boat through a series of small creeks that eventually open up to a lake. While fishing on the lake, the local game warden approaches Adam and issues him a citation. Adam is now facing charges for trespass for unlawful entrance on a state-controlled lake and illegal fishing. The citation is based upon a Louisiana statute authorizing state-controlled wildlife areas and the restriction of those areas to public use. Adam, a savvy business student, begins researching the state statute and its legal history. He finds a state appellate court opinion stating that the Louisiana statute cannot lawfully prohibit access to the water resources that are accessible by a navigable waterway. Navigable waterways are controlled by federal law, and any state law in conflict is preempted. If Adam presents this case to the trial court, would it potentially have an effect upon the outcome of the trial? Why or why not?
- It would possibly affect the trial court's decision. Trial courts do not generally venture into the realm of interpreting whether a statute is Constitutional. It will, however, apply the current state of the law. If Adam can present this case to the court, the court may be convinced that this is indeed the current state of the law. If so, that would serve as a defense for Adam. If the trial court is not convinced that the ruling in the case is the current state of the law, then it would likely not affect the court's findings. It would, however, open up grounds for appeal of the trial court's decision.
- US Courts (Intro)
- What is the Authority for Article III Courts?
- What is the Authority for Article I Courts?
- What is the authority for courts under Article II?
- What is the authority for Article IV Territorial Courts?
- What is the authority for State Courts?
- What are Article III Courts?
- What are Article I Administrative Courts?
- What are Article IV Territorial Courts?
- What are state courts?
- What is Subject-Matter Jurisdiction?
- What is Federal Court Subject-Matter Jurisdiction?
- What is State Court Subject-Matter Jurisdiction?
- Can a Federal trial courts hear state matters & vice versa?
- Can a Federal appellate court hear federal matters & vice versa?
- What is Personal Jurisdiction?
- How to establish Federal Court Personal Jurisdiction?
- How to establish State Court Personal Jurisdiction?
- What is a Long-Arm Statute?
- Who are the primary players in the state judicial system?
- What types of judges are part of the judiciary?
- What is the role of jurors in the judicial system?
- What number of jurors and juror votes are required for guilt or liability?
- What do Attorneys do?
- Who are the other players in the judicial system?
- US Circuit Court?
- US Supreme Court?
- Appeals from Legislative and Administrative Courts
- Appeals in the state court system?