Judicial Review of Voluntary Arbitration
Preserving the Rights of the Parties
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How to Challenge an Arbitration Award?
Arbitration is a non-judicial process. As such, there is no appeal available. There is, however, a limited ability to challenge an arbitration award in an Art. III court.
The standard for challenging an arbitration award differs for voluntary and mandatory arbitrations.
Next Article: Judicial Review of Mandatory Arbitration Back to: ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
What is Review of Voluntary Arbitration Awards?
Parties may challenge an arbitration award based upon the arbitrator exceeding her authority or based upon a contractual defense to the validity of the arbitration agreement.
That is, the court will not disturb an arbitrator's award based upon an error in the application of law or determination of a fact.
The challenging party must file a legal action attacking the validity of the arbitration agreement or the authority of the arbitrator.
For example, the arbitrator may have issued an award that affected property that was not subject to the original contract.
In general, arbitration clauses are liberally interpreted when a party contests the scope of the clause.
If the scope is debatable or reasonably in doubt, the clause is construed in favor of arbitration.
In summary, the fact that the arbitrator made an erroneous ruling or reached erroneous findings of fact are not grounds for setting aside the award.
Of course, an error of law may render the award void when it requires the parties to commit a crime or otherwise to violate a positive mandate of the law.
In any event, judicial review of the arbitration award may correct fraudulent or arbitrary actions by an arbitrator.
Discussion: Why do you think courts, when reviewing a challenge to an arbitration award, refuse to revisit the facts or procedures of the arbitration? Do you believe they should revisit the facts and procedures?
Practice Question: Brad and Angela agree to arbitrate their contract dispute. At the end of the arbitration, Angela is not happy with the award handed down by the arbitrators. What are her options for challenging the arbitration award?
- A party can challenge or appeal the arbitration award. This can start by the party filing an action in court. She must however file the action on the grounds that the arbitrators lacked jurisdiction to arbitrate the matter, there was fraud in the inducement to arbitrate, or that the arbitrators acted in a manner that was unlawful.
Academic Research on Challenging an Arbitration
- Markham, Jerry W., Judicial Review of an Arbitrator's Award Under Section 301(A) of the Labor Management Relations Act (1972). Tennessee Law Review, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1972; Florida International University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10-36. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1701719
- Ware, Stephen J., Employment Arbitration and Voluntary Consent. Hofstra Law Review, Vol. 25, No. 83, 1996. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=10318 [/ht_toggle]