Monopolistic Competition - Explained
What is Monoplistic Competition?
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What is Monopolistic Competition?
Monopolistic competition is a market structure where companies offer the same type of product or services. In a monopolistic market, there is a combination of a competitive market and elements of monopoly. We can, therefore, say that it is the mid between the competitive and monopoly elements. There is freedom of entry and exit in a monopolistic competitive market, and one firms decision does not affect that of its competitors.
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How does Monopolistic Competition Work?
Most firms in a monopolistic market are similar but with a relatively low degree market power. It means that all of them are price makers, which makes the demand to be highly elastic, hence leading to high sensitive price changes. In monopolistic competition, there are positive economic profits, but in the short run. However, in the long run, it usually comes to zero. So, because of stiff competition, most firms engage in an intensive advertisement, so that they can be able to thrive in the market.
Examples of Monopolistic Competition
Generally, the monopolistic competition involves competition with a number of industries that consumers familiarize with every day. You can find this in real-world markets. Good examples of such include the following:
Basically, differentiation of products is key when it comes to business. So, most restaurants competition always ranges from the quality of food, price as well as services. Also, there is free entry to this kind of business, meaning that there are low barriers when it comes to setting up a restaurant.
- Hair salons and barbershops
Hairdressing is also a good example of monopolistic competition. Salon and barbershop owners acquire a reputation based on the services they offer. Those with exceptional services usually build a good reputation, which attracts customers to their shops. Anyone is free to set up a hairdressing business because the business has low entry barriers.
Clothing is also another thing that people familiarize with during their day-to-day life. Product differentiation is also what makes this type of business to thrive in the clothing industry. For instance, designer label clothes thrive in the market because of the brand quality that makes it stand out from the rest.
- Television Programmes
Today we have many television programs ranging from local channels to international ones. People across the world are free to choose the programs they want to watch. For instance, Netflix provides consumers with a wide range of television programs from which they can choose from. Remember that content quality is what makes consumers prefer a certain channel over others.
Characteristics of a Monopolistic Competition
There are four features of monopolistic competition. They include the following:
- Product differentiation: Consumers always differentiate products based on design, quality, or service. So, in most cases, you may find similar products from different firms. However, because of the products element differentiation, another firms product or service, cannot be a perfect substitute for another company. There is always something that will make consumers like a product or service from a specific firm.
- The number of sellers: The manufacturing industries consist of various firms selling products that are closely related but are not similar. Most firms are usually independent and with limited market share. It means that one single firm cannot influence the market price.
- Perfect knowledge: Most consumers have little knowledge when it comes to differentiating quality brands and prices. So, most of them are not in a position to identify a seller with quality brand products that have low prices. So, most of them end up buying products of poor quality at a higher price and vice versa.
- Barriers to entry: When it comes to monopolistic competition, there are either minimal or no entry barriers. Minimal entry is an incentive for firms to enter the market hence increasing competition. Note that the firms will not necessarily be mobile, but they will bring about perfect competition, that will ensure that firms don't experience long-term supernormal profits.
- Marketing: Due to high competition in the market, each firm will want to advertise its product or service so that it is known to consumers. In other words, there is extensive marketing of products and services in a monopolistic competition.
- Demand Elasticity: There is a wide range of demand for similar products in the market. So, there is the tendency that the demand will bring changes to the prices in the market. For instance, lets assume that your favorite product A suddenly changes its price to $10 from its usual price of $7. In this case, you may be tempted to use an alternative product that costs low without your countertops knowing the difference.
Monopolistic Competition Assumptions
There are various assumptions when it comes to monopolistic competition. They include the following:
- In monopolistic competition, there are many consumers and producers who make industry competition ratio to be below.
- There is a perception by the consumers of there being a non-price differences among the products and services. In other words, the competition is strong, there is product differentiation, and most customers tend to switch from one product to the other.
- Producers can somehow control the prices in the market, as they are the price makers. However, there is price elasticity resulting from the high demand, which tends to be higher than that of monopoly.
- The barriers related to market entry and exit are relatively low.
Limitation of monopolistic Competition
- Some firms are able to penetrate the market and make supernormal profits because of their ability to produce a product with better brand differentiation.
- New firms entering the market are usually not seen as a close substitute. What this means is that it is difficult for their product or service to penetrate the already competitive market.
- Although the monopolistic model has the assumption that there are no entry barriers, in the real world, there are indeed several barriers related to market entry. For instance, a firm with strong product differentiation and strong brand loyalty is already a barrier. It means that it is difficult for new firms to penetrate the market and capture brand loyalty.
- The free barrier entry encourages new firms to enter the market. As a result, it reduces the demand for products from the existing firms bringing their profits from supernormal to normal.
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- Market Structure
- Perfect Competition
- Bidding War
- Substitution Effect
- Imperfect Competition
- Market Power
- Price Takers
- Price Makers
- Perfect Competition and Decision Making
- Captive Market
- Contestable Market Theory
- Highest Profit Point in a Perfectly Competitive Market
- Using Marginal Revenue and Marginal Costs to Maximize Profit
- Marginal Revenue Curve
- Profit Margin and Average Total Cost
- Break Even Point - Cost Curve
- Shutdown Point - Cost Curve
- Short-Run Decisions Based Upon Costs in a Perfectly Competitive Market
- Marginal Costs and the Supply Curve for a Perfectively Competitive Firm
- Decisions to Enter or Exit a Market in the Long Run
- Long-Run Equilibrium in a Perfectly Competitive Market
- Constant, Increasing, and Decreasing Cost Industries
- Productive and Allocative Efficiency in Perfectly Competitive Markets
- Market Efficiency
- Market Inefficiency
- Pareto Efficiency
- Search Theory
- Natural Monopoly
- Legal Monopoly
- Bilateral Monopoly
- Promoting Innovation through Intellectual Property
- Predatory Pricing
- How Monopolists Set Price with the Demand Curve
- Total Cost and Total Revenue for a Monopolist
- Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost for a Monopolist
- Inefficiency of Monopoly
- Perfectly Competitive Market
- Monopolistic Competition
- Differentiated Products
- Perceived Demand for a Monopolistic Competitor
- Monopolistic Competitors Choose Price and Quantity
- Monopolistic Competitors and Entry
- Monopolistic Competition and Efficiency
- Cartel (Economics)
- Game Theory
- Traveler's Dilemma
- Prisoner's Dilemma
- Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma
- Nash Equilibrium
- Diner's Dilemma
- Trembling Hand Perfect Equilibrium
- Gambler's Fallacy
- Arrows Impossibility Theorem
- Backward Induction
- Tournament Theory
- Oligopoly and the Prisoner’s Dilemma
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- Cooperation and the Kinked Demand Curve
- Corporate Merger or Acquisition
- Antitrust Laws
- Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
- Concentration Ratio
- Other Approaches to Measuring Monopoly Power in an Industry
- Restrictive Practices under Antitrust Law
- Natural Monopoly
- Cost-Plus Regulation
- Price Cap Regulation
- Regulatory Capture