Balance to Complete - Definition
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What is Balance to Complete (BDC)?
Balance to Complete (BDC) is the approximation of all costs and expenses spent on a job. The costs estimated in balance to complete are direct and indirect costs. Direct costs such as costs of materials, wages for labor are attributed to the production of goods and services. Indirect costs in the other hand include, facility cost, administrative cost, among others.
BDC is often used in the construction industry. It evaluates the costs involved in the realization of a project or execution of a job from the point of initiation to completion.
Academic Research on Balance to Complete
- Cost of quality versus cost of nonquality in construction: the crucial balance, Rosenfeld, Y. (2009). Construction Management and Economics, 27(2), 107-117.
- The causes and costs of defects in construction: A study of seven building projects, Josephson, P. E., & Hammarlund, Y. (1999). Automation in construction, 8(6), 681-687.
- Performance management in construction: a conceptual framework, Kagioglou, M., Cooper, R., & Aouad, G. (2001). Construction management and economics, 19(1), 85-95.
- The application of balanced scorecard in the performance evaluation of higher education, Chen, S. H., Yang, C. C., & Shiau, J. Y. (2006). The TQM magazine, 18(2), 190-205.
- Developing Balanced Scorecard: Case of three construction firms of small size, Phadtare, M. T. (2010). Journal of Asia-Pacific Business, 11(2), 135-157.
- Using the balanced scorecard on supply chain integration performancea case study of service businesses, Chang, H. H., Hung, C. J., Wong, K. H., & Lee, C. H. (2013). Service Business, 7(4), 539-561.
- Balanced Scorecard implementation in Jordan: An initial analysis, Al Sawalqa, F., Holloway, D., & Alam, M. (2011). International Journal of Electronic Business Management, 9(3), 196.
- The rise of the balanced scorecard! Relevance regained?, Nrreklit, H., Nrreklit, L., Mitchell, F., & Bjrnenak, T. (2012). Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, 8(4), 490-510.
- Constructing and evaluating balanced portfolios of R&D projects with interactions: A DEA based methodology, Eilat, H., Golany, B., & Shtub, A. (2006). European journal of operational research, 172(3), 1018-1039.
- The management of construction company overhead costs, Assaf, S. A., Bubshait, A. A., Atiyah, S., & Al-Shahri, M. (2001). International Journal of Project Management, 19(5), 295-303.
- Motives, diffusion and utilisation of the balanced scorecard in Denmark, Nielsen, S., & Sorensen, R. (2004). International Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Performance Evaluation, 1(1), 103-124.