Organizational Commitment - Explained
What is Organizational Commitment?
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Table of ContentsWhat is Organizational Commitment?What are the Levels of Employee Commitment?Commitment Related to Behavior RequirementsWhat is the Meyer and Allen Model of Commitment? Porter’s Theory of Organizational Commitment
What is Organizational Commitment?
Organizational Commitment (OC) is the psychological attachment and the resulting loyalty of employees to an organization, based on the pride of being part of the organization and the belief that their organization values them.
Organizational Commitment is part of the field of organizational behavior which defines, explains and humanizes the reasons behind organizational employee commitment.
What are the Levels of Employee Commitment?
The attachment and loyalty of employees can be present at a variety of levels:
- their job,
- boss, or
If human resources are said to be an organization‘s greatest assets, then committed human resources should be regarded as an organization's competitive advantage.
Commitment Related to Behavior Requirements
Per Rosabeth Kanter (1968), types of employee commitment result from different behavioral requirements placed on members by the organization:
- Continuance commitment has to do with a member's dedication to the survival of the organization and results from having people make sacrifices for and investments in the organization.
- Cohesion commitment is attachment to social relations in an organization; it can be enhanced by having employees publicly renounce previous social ties or engage in ceremonies that enhance group cohesion.
- Control commitment is a member's attachment to the norms of an organization that shape behavior in desired ways. It exists when employees believe that the organization's norms and values are important guides to their behavior.
What is the Meyer and Allen Model of Commitment?
The Meyer and Allen Model of Commitment, proposed by Meyer and Allen, (1991) is a conceptualization of organizational commitment stating that there are generally three 'mind sets' (reasons, motives) for an employee to be committed to an organization:
- Affective Commitment: positive feelings of identification with, attachment to, and involvement in the work organization. The development of affective commitment is based on the exchange principle. The employees commit themselves to the organization in return for the rewards received or the punishments avoided.
- Normative Commitment: the employees’ feelings of obligation to remain with the organization. Normative commitment develops as a result of beliefs that are internalized through socialization processes, both familial and cultural, that occur both before and after entry into the organization.
- Continuance Commitment: the extent to which employees feel committed to their organizations by virtue of the costs that they feel are associated with leaving (e.g., investments or lack of attractive alternatives). Continuance commitment is expected to be related to anything that increases the cost associated with leaving the organization.
Porter’s Theory of Organizational Commitment
According to Porter (1974), organizational commitment consists of the following three components:
- A strong belief in and acceptance of the goals and values of the organization.
- A willingness to exert (display) considerable effort on behalf of the organization.
- A definite desire to maintain organizational membership (belong to the organization).