Likert's Four Systems of Management - Explained
What are Likert's Four Systems of Management?
If you still have questions or prefer to get help directly from an agent, please submit a request.
We’ll get back to you as soon as possible.
- Marketing, Advertising, Sales & PR
- Accounting, Taxation, and Reporting
- Professionalism & Career Development
Law, Transactions, & Risk Management
Government, Legal System, Administrative Law, & Constitutional Law Legal Disputes - Civil & Criminal Law Agency Law HR, Employment, Labor, & Discrimination Business Entities, Corporate Governance & Ownership Business Transactions, Antitrust, & Securities Law Real Estate, Personal, & Intellectual Property Commercial Law: Contract, Payments, Security Interests, & Bankruptcy Consumer Protection Insurance & Risk Management Immigration Law Environmental Protection Law Inheritance, Estates, and Trusts
- Business Management & Operations
- Economics, Finance, & Analytics
Table of ContentsWhat is Likert's Four Systems of Management?Exploitative Authoritative System Benevolent Authoritative SystemConsultative System Participative System Variables for Assessing Management Style
What is Likert's Four Systems of Management?
Likert's four systems of management are categorized as follows:
Exploitative Authoritative System
Higher-level leadership is charged with the majority of the responsibilities in the organization. They make decisions and communicate them downward to subordinates. Subordinates are not involved in decision making. It is characterized by a lack of employee empowerment, trust, or confidence. Leaders use threats and fear to motivate performance. Management is highly task-oriented.
Benevolent Authoritative System
Authority and decision-making rest with higher-level management. The motivation for subordinate performance is based on rewards. This necessarily entails a higher level of trust and confidence in the subordinate. Communication flows both directions, but it is generally tailored to the leaders expectations.
The leader seeks input from subordinates before making a decision. This demonstrates an increased level of trust and confidence in the subordinate. Subordinates are motivated by their participation in the process in addition to rewards for performance. Information flows well both directions.
Subordinates actively participate in the decision-making process. The subordinate is motivated by her participation in the decision-making process and through rewards tied to results.
Back to: BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Variables for Assessing Management Style
Likert identified seven variables in identifying and assessing these management styles:
- Motivational Forces
- Leadership Processes
- Decision-making Processes
- Communication Processes
- Interaction-Influence Processes
- Control Processes
- Goal Setting Processes
He also identified key individuals in every organization called linking pins who participate in multiple groups and bring them together.