Emotional Intelligence - Explained
What is Emotional Intelligence?
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Table of ContentsWhat is Emotional Intelligence?How does Emotional Intelligence Work? What are the Five Domains of Emotional Intelligence?What are the Four Domains of Emotional Intelligence?Comparing IQ and EI?Assessing and measuring Emotional Intelligence
What is Emotional Intelligence?
Emotional intelligence (EI), or Emotional Leadership (EL), refers to an individual's capability to understand and comprehend their own emotions, emotions and feelings of others, manage emotional information, and manage those emotions to adjust according to the environment for achieving specific goals.
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How does Emotional Intelligence Work?
The concept of emotional intelligence was first introduced in 1964 by Micheal Beldoch when he published it in a paper. It later on became more prominent and earned popularity when the journalist Daniel Goleman published the concept of emotional intelligence in a book in 1995.
Empathy is often linked to emotional intelligence (EI). Empathy is the ability to connect and compare one's own life experiences with those of others.
There are different methods used to measure the range of empathy. Goleman's model may be considered a mixed model, as it combines both the ability and traits of a persons emotional intelligence (EI).
The ability model enlists four types of abilities that those Emotional Intelligence have:
- Perceive emotions - It is the ability to identify ones own emotions and the ability to identify and detect voice, face and other things.
- Using emotions - It is the ability to utilize emotions to solve issues and problems.
- Understanding emotions - It is the ability to understand emotions and interconnection among emotions.
- Managing emotions - It is the ability to manage emotions. An emotionally intelligent (EI) person can even manage negative emotions.
What are the Five Domains of Emotional Intelligence?
Goleman (1995) agrees with Salovey & Mayer (1990) identify Five Main Domains of Emotional Intelligence:
- Knowing one's emotions. Self-awareness, recognizing a feeling while it happens.
- Managing emotions. The ability of handling feelings so they are appropriate.
- Motivating oneself. Marshalling emotions in the service of a goal.
- Recognizing emotions in others. Empathy, social awareness.
- Handling relationships. Skill in managing emotions in others.
What are the Four Domains of Emotional Intelligence?
Goleman proposed Four Domains of EI. The 4 domains have 19 categories. 2 extra categories were added by the Hay Group:
- Self-awareness (Emotional Self-Awareness. Accurate Self-Assessment and Self Confidence)
- Self-management (Emotional Self-Control. Transparency (Trustworthiness). Adaptability. Achievement Orientation. Initiative. Optimism. Conscientiousness)
- Social awareness (Empathy. Organizational Awareness. Service Orientation)
- Relationship management (Inspirational Leadership. Influence. Developing Others. Change Catalyst. Conflict Management. Building Bonds. Teamwork and Collaboration. Communication)
An important thing to understand is that - according to Goleman - these EI competencies are not innate talents. They are learned abilities.
Comparing IQ and EI?
According to Goleman, IQ and EI should not be regarded as competencies with an opposite direction. They are rather separate competencies. People with a high IQ but low EI (or the opposite) are, despite the stereotypes, relatively rare. There is a correlation between IQ and some aspects of EI. The stereotypes (pure types) are:
- (Pure) High-IQ male. He is typified - no surprise - by a wide range of intellectual interest and abilities. He is ambitious and productive. Predictable and dogged. And untroubled by concerns about himself. He also tends to be critical and condescending. Fastidious and inhibited. Uneasy with sexuality and sensual experience. Unexpressive and detached. And emotionally bland and cold.
- (Pure) High-EI male. He is socially poised. Outgoing and cheerful. Not prone to fearfulness or worried rumination. He has a notable capacity for commitment to people or causes, for taking responsibility, and for having an ethical outlook. He is sympathetic and caring in his relationships. His emotional life is rich, but appropriate. He is comfortable with himself, others, and the social universe he lives in.
- (Pure) High-IQ female. She has the expected intellectual confidence. Is fluent in expressing her thoughts. Values intellectual matters. And has a wide range of intellectual and aesthetic interests. She tends to be introspective. Prone to anxiety, rumination, and guilt. And hesitates to express her anger openly.
- (Pure) High-EI female. She tend to be assertive and expresses her feelings directly. And feels positive about herself. Life holds meaning for her. She is outgoing and gregarious. And expresses her feelings appropriately. She adapts well to stress. Her social poise lets her easily reach out to new people. She is comfortable enough with herself to be playful, spontaneous, and open to sensual experience. She rarely feels guilty, or sinks into rumination.
Assessing and measuring Emotional Intelligence
Instruments used for measuring Emotional Intelligence
- EQ-I (Bar-On, 1997): a self-report instrument to assess those personal qualities that enabled some people to possess better emotional well-being than others.
- Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1998): a test of ability where the test-taker performs a series of tasks that are designed to assess the persons ability to perceive, identify, understand, and work with emotion.
- Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) (Goleman, 1998): a 360 degree instrument, where people evaluate the individuals within an organization (Individual Feedback Reports). Or the organization as a whole (Work Force Audits). These audits can provide an organizational profile for any size group within the company. The Emotional Competence Inventory works with the 19/21 competencies described above (See under Four Domains of EI).