United States Travel And Tourism Administration Definition
United States Travel and Tourism Administration was a former agency, responsible for administering the travel and tourism offices of the United States in foreign countries. The goal of the agency was to enhance the international competitiveness of the United States travel and tourism industry.
Currently, the National Travel and Tourism Office, under the Department of Commerce, is responsible for promoting growth in travel and tourism by reducing institutional barriers.
A Little more on the United States Travel and Tourism Administration
The United States Travel and Tourism Administration was replaced by the United States Travel and Tourism Administration in 1981. The later was responsible for operating the country’s official travel and tourism offices worldwide.
In 1996, the government of the United States decided to shut down all these offices, as the responsibility of USTTA was largely being fulfilled by the Visit USA Committee. Now, in foreign countries, the U.S tourism companies have their offices in the Visit USA Committees.
The National Travel and Tourism Office creates a positive climate for promoting the tourism in the United States, manages joint marketing efforts, record official statistics related to the travel and tourism, and coordinates efforts across federal agencies through the Tourism Policy Council.
References for United States Travel And Tourism Administration
Academic Research on United States Travel And Tourism Administration
Reversing the United States‘ declining competitiveness in the marketing of international tourism: a perspective on future policy, Ahmed, Z. U., & Krohn, F. B. (1990). Journal of Travel Research, 29(2), 23-29. This article argues that the U.S has not provided adequate attention to the problems regarding the competitiveness in marketing international tourism and thus have lost opportunities to become a more competitive international tourist destination. This article makes some recommendations on how the U.S can move forward to build sustained competitiveness in the international tourism sector, both at home and abroad.
Chinese travellers to the United States: A comparison of business travel and visiting friends and relatives, Jang, S., Yu, L., & Pearson, T. (2003). Tourism Geographies, 5(1), 87-108. This article studies the socio-demographic, trip-related characteristics and travel activities of the Chinese tourist who visit the United States. It compares the travel behavior of Chinese business travelers and traveler who are visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in the US. China’s policy changes on outbound tourism since the 1990s were discussed and assessed in the paper.
Positioning a tourism destination to gain a competitive edge, Chacko, H. E. (1996). Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 1(2), 69-75. This article discusses the importance of positioning as a form of market communication to attract travelers and promote and tourism destination. It explains different parts of positioning process and applies them to promote a U.S. destination to Japanese travelers.
Forecasting tourism: Expenditures versus arrivals, Sheldon, P. J. (1993). Journal of travel research, 32(1), 13-20. The issues regarding the measurement and prediction of international tourist expenditure and tourism arrivals are discussed and analyzed in this paper. Six different forecasting techniques (time series and econometric causal models) that are used for forecasting tourism expenditures are examined. The results suggest the accuracy of the forecast depends on the country that is being forecasted. It concludes that the no-change model and Brown’s double exponential smoothing are, overall, the two most accurate methods of such forecasting.
Coastal zone tourism: A potent force affecting environment and society, Miller, M. L., & Auyong, J. (1991). Marine Policy, 15(2), 75-99. This paper discusses the opportunities and issues associated with coastal zone tourism development. The ecological and social impacts of tourism, travel patterns and the institutional outline for tourism management and planning are discussed and analyzed. The article reviews the 1990 ‘Congress on coastal and marine tourism’ held in Honolulu and comments on that.
Designing the four-year tourism management curriculum: A marketing approach,, Koh, K. (1995). Journal of Travel Research, 34(1), 68-72. The Paper argues that in the United States, most four-year tourism management curriculums are designed by educators who are not involved in the industry. Thus, their syllabus lacks standardization and relevance to the necessities of the industry. The paper recommends these curriculums should opt for a marketing approach instead of a selling approach in order to remain relevant and sustainable. It conducted a two-stage study to determine which are the elements needed to cover in the undergraduate tourism management program. It concludes that four educational clusters should be included in the curriculum and finds that 15 subjects are very important.
United States international tourism policy, Edgell, D. L. (1983). Annals of Tourism Research, 10(3), 427-434. The key mechanisms for tourism policy making in the United States are discussed. The importance of tourism policy and planning in the future development of the tourism sector is stated. Some key pointers of the National Tourism Policy Act of 1981 are described. The policy role of the US government in promoting tourism interests in the context of international economic and trade policy is recommended at the end of the paper.
Research on cultural tourism in the United States., Tighe, A. J. (1991). This paper discusses the profitability of cultural tourism. Research conducted by both travel organizations and art enthusiasts in the United States suggests that there is a significant connection between arts and tourism. The audience of the researches has been defined in terms of lifestyle descriptive variables. Educational attainments and income level were among the most important indicators. Results of the economic impact studies suggest that cultural tourists may spend much more money than the local attendee. It suggests the arts festivals have great tourism potential and may generate revenue if publicized abroad.
State-sponsored tourism: A growth field for public administration?, Richter, L. K. (1985). Public Administration Review, 832-839. Public sector tourism development in the United States is examined in this paper. The findings of a survey conducted in 1984 by the state and tourism offices regarding their budget allocations, employee needs, inter-governmental relations, and political support functions are presented in this paper. The survey suggests and massive state competition and activity generating important and growing state revenues. The paper finds it troubling that almost no mechanisms were present for sociopolitical monitoring of tourism growth. There was no interest to hire personnel with such skills. The paper also examines how public administration careers and specialties get affected by public sector tourism management.
Segmenting the international travel market by activity, Hsieh, S., O’Leary, J. T., & Morrison, A. M. (1992). Tourism Management, 13(2), 209-223. This study identified five groups of Hong Kong international pleasure travelers using the activity-based segmentation. Those were ‘visiting friends and relatives’, ‘outdoor sports’, ‘sightseeing’, ‘full-house activity’ and ‘entertainment’. It observes statistical differences between the groups in terms of party size, age group, occupation, and education. The results suggest activity-based segmentation approach can be used successfully in packaging and programming vacations, planning distribution channels, formulating training programs and promotional materials.
• Search behavior of international vacationers: Travel-specific lifiestyle and sociodemographic variables, Schul, P., & Crompton, J. L. (1983). Journal of Travel Research, 22(2), 25-30. This study analyzes the search behavior of international vacationers. It takes two variables- travel-specific psychographic statements and sociodemographic statements and tries to find out which one of these can more efficiently predict and explain the external search behavior of a sample of international vacationers. It also attempts to discriminate between respondents exemplifying active and passive external search behavior. The results suggest travel-specific psychographics are more efficient in explaining search behavior than the sociodemographic.