Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes Definition
The Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes is a report compiled by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund summarizing countries’ adherence to the internationally recognized standards and codes in 12 policy areas. The Standards and Codes are considered to be the indicator of good practices.
A Little More on What is the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes
The Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes initiative was introduced in 1999 for strengthening the international financial architecture. It promotes greater financial stability through the development, dissemination, adoption, and implementation of international standards and codes. The 12 policy areas examined in this report fall under three broad categories policy transparency, financial sector regulation and supervision and market infrastructure.
Data dissemination, fiscal policy transparency, and monetary and financial policy transparency fall under the category of policy transparency. Financial sector regulation and supervision include banking supervision, securities regulation, and insurance supervision. The third category includes crisis resolution and deposit insurance, insolvency and creditor rights, corporate governance, accounting and auditing, financial market infrastructures and market integrity.
The World Bank monitors accounting and auditing; corporate governance and insolvency and creditor rights. IMF has developed the standards in the policy transparency. The financial sector regulation and supervision standards have been developed by specialized standard-setting bodies. The institutional and market infrastructure standards are developed by specialized standard-setting bodies with substantial inputs from the World Bank and the IMF.
In November 2002, anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism was added in the observance list.
The reports are prepared and published at the request of the member countries. It helps to sharpen the policy discussion of the IMF and World Bank with the national authorities. The report is also used for risk assessment in the private sector including rating agencies.
The World Bank and IMF publish regular short updates on this and the full-fledged reports are produced in every few years.
Reference for Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes
Academic Research on the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)
· Dominican Republic-Update of the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on accounting and auditing, De, P., Ratha, D., & Mohapatra, S. According to this academic study, the report of 2004 on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on Accounting and Auditing in the Dominican Republic was studied. The aim of this report was to assist the Dominican government in making the A and A practices stronger. According to this study, the Dominican A and A landscape remained unchanged significantly although a lot of improvements have been put in place. Considering the cooperate sector as a whole body, the most noticeable change is the acceptance of a new company law which was carried out in 2008 which helps to increase the threshold for statutory establishment and audit of a new and less complex form of business entities with lesser A and A requirements.
· Brazil-Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)-accounting and auditing, Diao, X., Cakmak, E. H., Dudu, This study entails the report carried out in Brazil as regards the observance of standards and codes (ROSC) accounting and audits. This paper explains the various observations after several models and hypothesis were made before getting to the final postulation. The result after various observations were noted in this paper.
· H., Saracoglu, S., Roe, T., & Tsur, Y. Brazil-Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)-accounting and auditing. According to this academic paper, the ROSC A and A policy were prepared under the Financial Sector Assessment Program in Brazil. This paper explains the status of the implementation of this (2005 ROSC A and A) policy recommendations as well as highlight the most recent improvements in Brazil’s corporate financial reporting framework. This paper, however, explains that in maintaining appropriate macroeconomic policies, an intensive agenda should be implemented which will possess a wide range of structural reforms to improve the productivity, increase growth and raise the standard of living. One of the main aims of this policy in Brazil is to help improve the general business condition.
· Bulgaria-Report on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC): accounting and auditing, Davis, S. H., Gacitua, E., & Sojo, C. This paper, however, provides an example carried out on the financing reports, auditing requirements, accounting and the practices within the enterprise as well as in the financial sector in Bulgaria. Four different professional associations were in the country with the rest being defined as low institutional capacity. This study shows that the auditing job is better organized with just an association mandated by law to manage access to training, profession, quality control and the code of ethics. This paper explains that this improvement is needed at every available university, the government and all accredited professional companies.
· Report on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC): accounting and auditing, Gielen, F., Hegarty, J., & Hirata Baros, A. C. (2004). (No. 41953, pp. 1-26). The World Bank. This paper believed that the codes and standards are yardsticks of excellent practices. According to this research paper on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) which was launched in 1999 as an important component of the effort put towards strengthening the international financial architecture. This study, however, notes that idea aims at promoting both the domestic and international financial stability via the adoption, dissemination development and implementation of the International Standards and Codes (ROSC).
· Colombia-Report On The Observance Of Standards And Codes (ROSC): accounting and auditing, John, P., Duran, C. R., & Solo, T. M. This paper takes its observations from the findings gotten from a review of the accounting and auditing standards and codes in Columbia. This review focused majorly on the weaknesses and strengths of institutional; framework that gives help to corporate and financial reporting system in the country. This paper also explains the legal backup as regards this act in Columbia. Nonetheless, it is recommended according to this research paper that a statutory and regulatory body be established. Other policies that can be adopted include the establishment of a higher council that oversees the issuing of international accounting and auditing standards as local mandatory requirements for the interest of the general populace amongst others.
· Latvia, Republic of-Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)-accounting and auditing, Hirata Barros, A. C., & Gielen, F. Latvia, According to this academic research, an assessment financial reporting, accounting and auditing requirements and practices within a particular fur/sector or an enterprise were carried out in Latvia. This paper adopts the use of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the International Standards and Auditing (ISA) as a yardstick and also lays emphasis on the reports gotten from the International experience and good practices in the accounting and audit regulation field.
· Lebanon-Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)-accounting and auditing, Ng, F., & Yeats, A. This paper studies the effect of ROSC in Lebanon. Note that according to this paper, lesser gaps were found in the listed banks and companies while a much bigger gap appears in other companies that have theory determinants based on size and the personnel performing the audit. It should also be noted that no enforcement mechanism whatsoever exists to ensure the International Accounting Standards compliance was in place except in the banking sector. Also, the order of audit as issued by the Minister of finance does not cover the supervision or regulation or the monitoring of the compliance with the ISA. This paper gives recommendations regarding the plan of action with rapt attention on developing a practical implementation guideline.
· Indonesia-Report on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC), Ryten, J., Ducharme, L. M., Biru, Y., & Camelo, H. According to this paper, an assessment was carried out on Indonesia’s corporate governance policy framework. The recent improvements in the governance of this corporate policy, as well as the recommendations, were studied in this research paper. This paper, however, explains that too in other to build and implement outstanding policies, there must be investor’s trust in corporate governance and the importance of this is that it helps to protect important shareholders and can also encourage the relationships with workers, creditors and stakeholders; it also helps to make good decisions. It is a germane prerequisite for attracting the capital needed for sustaining a long term economic growth.
· World Bank Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes in Croatia, Nagy, D., & Plaats, E. V. D. (2007). This paper based its research on the report gotten from an assessment on assisted self-assessment of the auditing and accounting standards and practices in Croatia which was carried out under the management of a National Steering Committee which consist of representatives from private sectors and the government. This self-assessment exercise was assisted by due diligence of the Bank staff which mainly focused on the weaknesses and strengths of the institutional arrangements adopted for the observance of the IAS and ISA. This paper, however, explains that the Audit law should be carried out by a certified and licensed auditor under the authority granted by the Ministry of finance in accordance with the ISA.
· Czech Republic-Report on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC): insolvency and creditor rights systems, Johnson, G. W. This paper focuses on the Czech’s Republic’s creditor and inventory rights systems to a joint International MonetaryFund-World Bank program which has been inaugurated to study the rate of compliance with the ROSC in areas that has a connection with the financial sector and the market integrity. This paper studied the assessments on the World Bank Principles and Guidelines for Effective Insolvency and Coeditor Rights Systems. Various reviews were carried out in the following key areas; the creditor rights, the regulatory framework which helps to implement the insolvency system, the legal framework for corporate insolvency and the enabling framework for informal corporate workouts and credit risk management. The conclusions drawn from this assessment are based on the reviews gotten from the Bankruptcy and Composition Act.
· Georgia-Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC): Corporate governance country assessment, Kamine, J. This paper explains a number of weaknesses in Georgia’s corporate governance practices and regime. However, there is a need to involve combined efforts to strengthen the shareholder’s rights, improve transparency and disclosure, treat stakeholders fairly, protect the minority shareholders and ensure that the supervisors and the managing director’s members abide by their responsibilities and duties. This paper also believes efforts should be made towards strengthening the enterprise register which helps to keep important documents such as the firm’s charters. One of the major ways of fulfilling these objectives as postulated by this paper is by preparing a voluntary national code of best practice in corporate governance.