Reddin 3D or Tri-dimensional Grid

Cite this article as:"Reddin 3D or Tri-dimensional Grid," in The Business Professor, updated April 9, 2020, last accessed October 27, 2020,


What is the Reddin 3D or Tri-Dimensional Grid?

The Three-Dimensional Grid or 3-D Leadership Model was developed by Professor Bill Reddin as an extension of the managerial grid. The 3D Grid introduces another dimension, “Effectiveness”.

Effectiveness concerns the effect when a leader employe a style in a particular situation or context. As such, this model takes into consideration the “situational demands” for the leader to be most effective. A such, the grid contains 3 dimensions: “task-orientation”, “relationship orientation” and “effectiveness”.

A leadership style is considered to be effective when it meets the demands of the situation.
The identified managerial styles include:

  • Related – This is characterized by High – Relationship Orientation, Low – Task Orientation. The leader sees the organization as a social system. Personal interaction and the environment is more important than focusing on tasks or trying to make subordinates more productive through corrective actions.
  • Integrated – This is characterized by High – Relationship Orientation; High -Task Orientation. This is generally an effective, involved manager. There is high social interaction with subordinates as well as concerted efforts to improve productivity through teamwork and strong communications.
  • Separated – This is characterized by Low – Relationship Orientation; Low -Task Orientation. The leader provides policies and procedures and does little to monitor subordinate activity.
  • Dedicated – This is characterized by Low – Relationship Orientation; High -Task Orientation. The leader lays down directives and closely monitors the activities and production of employees. The leader’s authority is based upon formal power. There is a lack of social interaction.

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