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Participating Community (Flood Insurance) Definition
The National Flood Insurance Program, NFIP, was initiated in 1968 by the US Congress. This program provides flood insurance for participating communities and property owners. To benefit from NFIP, property owners in participating neighborhoods are obliged to purchase the insurance protection under the administration of the government. This insurance also includes flood loans secured by existing buildings and those undergoing construction in communities participating in NFIP.
A Little More on Participating Community
The main aim of NFIP is to mitigate the hazards that flood cause on private and public properties. The strong desire lead to communities being encouraged to purchase flood insurances regulated by the government. Despite this, communities cannot be compelled to participate in the National Flood Insurance Program, NFIP, that means a community can purchase government flood insurance and state-owned properties or otherwise. A participating community however is a community under NFIP insurance as authorised by Federal Emergency Management Agency, FEMA. In 2018, the United States celebrated 50 years of protecting participating communities from flood damages.
Flood insurance policy runs on an average annual budget of $700 but since 2004, the insurance program has been borrowing and accumulated a $25 billion debt by August 2017.
Quite a lot of communities were affected by disasters as a result of flooding, the US government provided relief for the affected communities through NFIP. However, before a community can enjoy the provisions of NFIP, an agreement must exist between the authorities of the local communities and that of the federal government. While NFIP provided financial reliefs from floods through flood insurance, SFHAs, Special Flood Hazard Areas are also given consideration based on FIRMs. Flood Insurance Rate Maps manage the floodplain management and mapping components of the NFIP Program. Due to heavy insurance claims resulting from flood damages, NFIP borrows from the US treasury and a finding revealed that over $51 billion has been pumped into NFIP between 1978 and 2014.
The provisions of NFIP are different from what HFIAA insurance or FEMA aid cater for, so also are their requirements. It is possible for your community to certify the requirements of FEMA or homeowner insurance but this is not a guarantee that these property owners can enjoy the provisions of NFIP.
NFIP offers flood insurance for private property owners and even renters, there are certain general requirements for the above listed owners to enjoy the NFIP protection from flood losses. One of the important requirements is that the owners must belong to a participating community, that is, there must be NFIP agreements signed by their communities before the property owners or renters can enjoy the provision of NFIP.
The necessity to provide protection for properties within SFHAs gave rise to the first amendment of NFIP by Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) in accordance to the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973. With the amendment of the program, new or significantly improved structures no longer enjoy the provisions of NFIP. Also, the 1994 National Flood Insurance reform Act gave room for NFIP participating communities to surpass the federal requirement limits of developing floodplains. Another reform was made to NFIP in 2004 and 2012 by Flood Insurance Reform act and Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance reform respectively. Further amendment to NFIP was the passage of HFIAA in 2014 which is the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act, 2014.
References for Participating Community (Flood Insurance)
Academic Research for Participating Community
• Participatory media for a non-participating community: Western media for Southern communities, Semujju, B. (2014). International Communication Gazette, 76(2), 197-208. There is a general argument that participatory or community media in Africa overrides community media from non-participatory communities. This paper contrasts different community media in Africa in relation to their communities, that is, there are perceived clampdown on participatory media due to the community it emanates from. Using data drawn from the Ugandan community media, this paper highlights the constraints of community media as a result of the community itself. This paper suggests that for an harmonious relationship to exist between participatory media and the communities, attention should be paid to the nature of the community and the community media that suits it.
• The New Development Space of Higher Vocational Education: Participating Community Education [J], Shuli, Y. (2007). Vocational and Technical Education, 19, 019. This paper studies the role of community participation in the development of new space of higher vocational learning. Higher vocational education prepare people for higher roles as it enables people to learn useful skills they need in order to be recruited into the workforce that suits them.This paper also examines the role of community-based education on higher vocational learning and development. It studies in rate of involvement of participating communities in vocational and technical education.
Mental Health and Family Function of Elderly regularly participating Community Activity, Zhang, H., & Yingzhu, M. A. (1989). Chinese Mental Health Journal, (03). The family as a basic social unit have a huge effect on mental health of elderly people but there is a perceived relationship between active participation in community activities and the mental or family function health of elderly people. This study however finds out that participation in community activities is also crucial to the mental health of elderly people. This health journal studies how participation in community activities affect the physical, psychological, mental health and even family function of the elderly.
• The STAR Community Rating System: An Analysis of the Communities Participating in the Program, Ghosh, S. (2018). International Journal of Public Administration, 41(16), 1396-1403. The STAR rating system which was launched in October 2012 is defined as a detailed composition or framework and certification program that aids an effective evaluation economic progress and sustainable social performance. This journal conducts a research by carrying out an analysis of communities participating in local and social programs using the data provided by the STAR rating system. This research identifies the role of teamwork among participating communities in achieving sustainable economic and societal growth. The peculiarities of communities participating in the STAR program are also examined and this research gives good recommendations to enhance the efficiency of its membership as well as their membership.
• Motivations of Producers and Consumers Participating in Urban Community Supported Agriculture (Csa) Groups in Denver, Colorado, Shelton, D. (2012). (Doctoral dissertation). This dissertation conducts an analysis on factors that stimulate the participation of both producers and consumers in Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) using urban communities like Colorado and Denver. It also includes a study of how motivations differ from producers to consumers which might be as a result of urban and geographical differences. Through the aid of CSA groups, platforms are created for both producers and consumers to trade agricultural products. However, the choice of both producers and consumers to participate in CSA is dependent on a number of motivations. This paper conducts an analysis of behaviours and responses of producers and consumers operating under the conditions of CSA.
• A Cultural-Historical View of Learning and Learning Disabilities: Participating in a Community of Learners., Gutierrez, K. D., & Stone, L. D. (1997). Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 12(2), 123-131. This paper conducts an analysis of learning disabilities associated with learners in participating communities. There are antecedents of of learning dysfunction noticeable in learners of participating communities. This study presents an overview of these learning impairments with a view to give an explanation for the peculiarities of the disabilities. The study also looks at the cross-cultural and historical factors contributing to learning dysfunction in cognitive and instructional contexts.
• Community conservation in Belize: demography, resource use, and attitudes of participating landowners, Hartup, B. K. (1994). Biological Conservation, 69(3), 235-241. This is a survey of the dispositions or attitudes of participating landowners in terms of demography and resource use in the community. This study of community conservation in Belize show how landowners hold the believe that they are stewards of their lands and the own up to the task of preserving their lands. This survey of landowners show that attitudes and resource use are aimed at promoting sustainable development in their regions. A survey of Community Baboon Sanctuary (CBS) in Belize show the degree of locally-driven sustainable resource use and agricultural development that landowners pay allegiance to.
• A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: Implications for health promotion and community development, Armstrong, D. (2000).Health & place, 6(4), 319-327. In a bid to understand the relationship between physical environment and community health, a survey on community gardens is required. This paper using the data from the survey of twenty community garden programs in upstate New York summing up to 63 gardens give explanation to the interplay between physical and social environments and health promotion. Using the surveyed gardens, this paper explains some reasons why there is participation gardens upstate in New York. This paper also show how community gardening can improve community development and community health.
• The impact of community service learning upon the expected political voice of participating college students, Seider, S. C., Gillmor, S., & Rabinowicz, S. (2012). Journal of Adolescent Research, 27(1), 44-77. Community service has a lot of impacts both to the community and the volunteers who participate in it. This paper conducts a study on how participation in community service reflect on the political voice of college students. This study focuses on SERVE program which is a community service learning program at Ignatius University. The findings of this study reveal that participation of students in SERVE program boost their political consciousness. It was prepared them for both community and social responsibilities as many college students tend to look forward to having community service in order to affect the communities positively.
• Sustainability of the Communities That Care prevention system by coalitions participating in the Community Youth Development Study, Gloppen, K. M., Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. D., & Shapiro, V. B. (2012). Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(3), 259-264.
• Attributions and Regulative Communication by Parents Participating in a Community-Based, Wilson, S. R., & Whipple, E. E. (2001). Attribution, communication behavior, and close relationships, 227. Parents that have active involvement and roles to play in participating community projects exhibit some peculiar attributes in terms of communication. This paper examines the attributes, communication traits, behaviours as well as the type of relationships maintained by parents who have have roles or participations in community based projects. This paper also studies the differences in attributes and regulative communication by these parents.