Global Program Against Money Laundering (GPML) Definition
The United Nations or the UN is one of the oldest and experienced global providers of Anti-Money Laundering and Countering Financing of Terrorism training and technical assistance. The UN has programs against money laundering, proceeds of crime, and the financing of terrorism. These programs are global and part of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
A Little More on What is the Global Program Against Money Laundering
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime(UNODC) was established in 1997 with the focal agenda of assisting member states to comply with the UN conventions and other instruments dealing with money laundering and terrorist financing. The United Nations Global Programme against Money Laundering (GPML) process crimes and financial frauds.
GPMLs purview and intents were increased in 2008 which now incorporates the UN Conventions against
- -Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
- -Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
- -Transnational Organized Crime.
The GPML’s objectives were increased to meet the growing needs and demands for bespoke assistance. The instruments were a practical implementation for the UN and other international AML/CFT standards.
For those who don’t know, the GPML is the main point for the AML policies within the UN system. It is even a fundamental component for strengthening the CFT. It provides technical assistance and training in the development of related infrastructure, legislation, and skills. It directly helps member states in detecting, seizing, and confiscating illicit proceeds. It now has an elaborated program which aims to make international action against the proceeds of crime and illicit financial flows which are useful.
The GPML provided long-term assistance in the development of the AML/CFT programs to 66 jurisdictions.
A Little More on What is Global Program Against Money Laundering
- GPML is the central point for AML policy and activities within the UN system and a key player in strengthening CFT. In 2015, GPML provided long-term assistance in the flourishing of AML/CFT programs to 66 jurisdictions as well as technical assistance and training in the development of related legislation, infrastructure, and skills.
- Train The Trainer – Majority of the authorities received training from local experts who had participated in the GPML train-the-trainer program.GPML has trained over 4,000 representatives out of which 900 benefited from the train the trainer scheme.
The Mentoring Program
- Mentor Program is one of the most successful training. The mentor can point out the needs and can provide advice regarding the same.
- GPML had employed five mentors in 2015, mentors were stationed in Senegal, South Africa, Gabon, Samoa, and Vietnam.
Asset Recovery Network for Southern Africa (ARINSA)
The setup provided mentoring to its members, namely Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. 2,500 officers in ARINSA countries have received this prestigious training offered by GPML.
GPML efforts had a pragmatic influence in 3 ARINSA countries.
– processed 41 cases in 2015.
– examples assets recovery (e.g., Tanzania and Mozambique – $363,000 in 10 cases of illegal timber, plus $300,000 in the case of a corrupt official in Zambia).
In West Africa(ARINWA), 169 national officers have been trained to conduct financial investigations, and 42 new trainers have been identified. Activities have been successful in coordination with the Intergovernmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA).
A cabin-style regional network for prosecutors and financial investigators in West Africa (ARINWA), consists of all 15 Economic Community of the Western African States. ARINWA held a joint plenary with other regional programs for judicial cooperation. The AML/CFT framework was also strengthened through the mentoring program. Various operations and activities were conducted in coordination with the Inter-Governmental Action Group. A visiting consultant was also employed by the GPML to deliver cash courier and money value transfer systems training.
In Hanoi, the mentor continued to strengthen operational capacities in Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Money laundering offense definitions and penal codes were revised. The mentor assisted Cambodia in its strengthening of the AML/CFT regime, and Vietnam, training workshops were provided on bulk cash smuggling. Around 1,000 pocket guides on cash smuggling have been distributed to customs officers, and awareness camps have been held on this regard.
- Illicit Financial Flows-The Global Program against Money Laundering (GPML) conducts financial flows to and fro that is linked with illegal drug production and trafficking. Even, GPML worked with UNODC Global Program on the illicit financial flows and value transfer driving from wildlife and timber traffics.
- Financial Investigation Course- The primary concern of the GPML’s financial investigation is to help the investigators develop knowledge and skills in financial investigation.
- Development of AML/CFT Experts/Trainers- GPML has a multiplier effect that enables new trainers to train members of the other regions and their surroundings on the financial investigations for West Africa.
- Prosecutor Placement Program- This program appoints prosecutors to be assigned to the legal team with the agenda of helping them to have a practical understanding of seizing assets and forfeiture practices. Additionally, the program operates in Southern African with the South African National Prosecuting Authority’s Asset Forfeiture Unit.
- goAML and goTrace- GPML in conjunction with the UNDO IT section, use the goAML software for financial intelligence and goTrace for securing the transfer of information, about 26 countries are currently running the goAML software, 10 are waiting to be deployed furthermore more than 40 government agencies have requested goTrace.
- IMoLIN/AMLID- GPML on behalf of eleven international organizations, created The International Money Laundering Information Network. The IMoLIN provides information for professionals like the Anti-Money Laundering International Database (AMLID)
References for Global Program Against Money Laundering
Academic Research on Global Program against Money Laundering (GPML)
The illegal sector, Money Laundering and the legal economy: A macroeconomic analysis, Masciandaro, D. (2000). Journal of Financial Crime, 8(2), 103-112. This paper highlighted the macroeconomic framework dedicated to the analysis of the relation among the illegal sector, money laundering, and the legal economy. In previous years this author had developed a microeconomic thesis of the money‐laundering mechanisms.
International initiatives against corruption and money laundering: an overview: Shehu, A. Y. (2005). Journal of Financial Crime, 12(3), 221-245. It Examines in detail the various international, legal, policy and institutional principles to deal with money laundering and corruption. Begins with the many United Nations (UN) initiatives: The 1988 Convention contra Illicit Trafficking of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. 2000 Convention against Transnational Organised crime and Corruption. Convention to Suppress the Financing of Terrorism and Money Laundering. Global Programme against Corruption
From drugs to terrorism: the focus shifts in the international fight against money laundering after September 11, 2001, Bachus, A. S. (2004). Ariz. J. Int’l & Comp. L., 21, 835.
Crackdown on money laundering: a comparative analysis of the feasibility and effectiveness of domestic and multilateral policy reforms, Lacey, K. A., & George, B. C.(2002). Nw. J. Int’l & Bus., 23, 263. The terrorist attacks in the United States in September 2001, security agencies throughout the world have followed leads that may prove that Osama bin Laden financed the attack with massive amounts of laundered money. Awareness of the harmful effects of money laundering, and public and governmental concerns regarding reverse- money laundering by terrorists has resulted in attention being directed toward anti-money laundering efforts. Governments also are undergoing prima face due to upsurged public pressure to increase and expand the anti-money laundering legislative framework initiatives to determine if they sufficiently resolve the challenges relevant to the eradication of money laundering are being taken up. All the initiatives being evaluated are from The USA.
The war against money laundering, terrorism, and the financing of terrorism, Morais, H. V. (2002). Lawasia J., 1.
Money laundering in Southern Africa. Incidence, magnitude and prospects for its control, Goredema, C. (2004). Institute for Security Studies Papers,2004(92), 11-11.
Watching the Clothes Go Round: Combating the Effecting of Money Laundering on Economic Development and International Trade, Kennedy, P. (2003). Currents: Int’l Trade LJ, 12, 140.
Governance of money laundering: an application of the principal-agent model, Shah, S. A. H., Shah, S. A. H., & Khan, S. (2006). The Pakistan Development Review,1117-1133.
Fighting international crime and its financing: The importance of following a coherent global strategy based on the rule of law, Morais, H. V. (2005). Vill. L. Rev., 50, 583.
UN Anti-Money Laundering Initiatives, McDonell, R. (2007). Anti-Money Laundering: International Law and Practice, 49.
The global detection and deterrence of money laundering, Sandhu, H. S.(2000). Journal of Money Laundering Control, 3(4), 336-344. Crime has become ever more international. The world is faced with criminality that profits by the advantages of the so‐called free world, be it is drug trafficking, financial fraud or cyber‐pornography. Criminals know no geographical boundaries; nor does their dirty money recognize any such barriers.