*The Business Professor*, updated May 20, 2019, last accessed October 21, 2020, https://thebusinessprofessor.com/lesson/degrees-of-freedom-definition/.

**Degrees of Freedom Definition**

Degree of Freedom refers to the number of values in a statistical calculation that are free to vary from others. Hence the number of values in a study that have the freedom to differ are regarded as degrees of freedom.

For a better understanding of what degrees of freedom mean, the minimum number of independent values that can vary or differ from others in a statistical calculation are degrees of freedom.

### References for Degrees of Freedom

*https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degrees_of_freedom_(statistics)**https://www.statisticshowto.datasciencecentral.com/degrees-of-freedom/**blog.minitab.com/blog/statistics-and…data…/what-are-degrees-of-freedom-in-statistics**https://statisticsbyjim.com › Blog**https://www.statsdirect.com/help/basics/degrees_freedom.htm*

### Research article for Degrees of freedom

Ohmi, T., & Machida, K. (1998). Bose-Einstein condensation with internal degrees of freedom in alkali atom gases. *Journal of the Physical Society of Japan*, *67*(6), 1822-1825.

On the “**degrees of freedom**” of the lasso, **Zou, H., Hastie, T., & Tibshirani, R. (2007). On the “degrees of freedom” of the lasso. ***The Annals of Statistics***, ***35***(5), 2173-2192.**

Reduction of Dynamical **Degrees of Freedom **in the Large- Gauge Theory, **Eguchi, T., & Kawai, H. (1993).In ***The Large N Expansion In Quantum Field Theory And Statistical Physics: From Spin Systems to 2-Dimensional Gravity*** (pp. 377-380).**

Robust speed control of DC servomotors using modern two **degrees**–**of**–**freedom **controller design, **Umeno, T., & Hori, Y. (1991). Robust speed control of DC servomotors using modern two degrees-of-freedom controller design. ***IEEE Transactions on industrial electronics***, ***38***(5), 363-368.**

**Bliss, D. W., & Forsythe, K. W. (2003, November). Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar and imaging: degrees of freedom and resolution. In ***The Thrity-Seventh Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, 2003*** (Vol. 1, pp. 54-59). IEEE. **