Degrees of Freedom – Definition

Cite this article as:"Degrees of Freedom – Definition," in The Business Professor, updated May 20, 2019, last accessed August 11, 2020,


Degrees of Freedom Definition

Degree of Freedom refers to the number of values in a statistical calculation that are free to vary from others. Hence the number of values in a study that have the freedom to differ are regarded as degrees of freedom.

For a better understanding of what degrees of freedom mean, the minimum number of independent values that can vary or differ from others in a statistical calculation are degrees of freedom.

References for Degrees of Freedom

Research article for Degrees of freedom

Ohmi, T., & Machida, K. (1998). Bose-Einstein condensation with internal degrees of freedom in alkali atom gases. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 67(6), 1822-1825.

On the “degrees of freedom” of the lasso, Zou, H., Hastie, T., & Tibshirani, R. (2007). On the “degrees of freedom” of the lasso. The Annals of Statistics, 35(5), 2173-2192.

Reduction of Dynamical Degrees of Freedom in the Large- Gauge Theory, Eguchi, T., & Kawai, H. (1993).In The Large N Expansion In Quantum Field Theory And Statistical Physics: From Spin Systems to 2-Dimensional Gravity (pp. 377-380).

Robust speed control of DC servomotors using modern two degreesoffreedom controller design, Umeno, T., & Hori, Y. (1991). Robust speed control of DC servomotors using modern two degrees-of-freedom controller design. IEEE Transactions on industrial electronics, 38(5), 363-368.

Bliss, D. W., & Forsythe, K. W. (2003, November). Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar and imaging: degrees of freedom and resolution. In The Thrity-Seventh Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, 2003 (Vol. 1, pp. 54-59). IEEE. 

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