*The Business Professor*, updated September 21, 2019, last accessed May 31, 2020, https://thebusinessprofessor.com/lesson/absolute-frequency/.

### Absolute Frequency Definition

The term absolute frequency depicts the number of times a value or event takes place in a set of statistical data. In statistics, the absolute value is denoted by fi. If all the absolute frequencies are added up, the total number of data can be found, it is denoted by N.

f1+ f2 + f3+…+ fn= N

This sum is denoted by Σ (capital sigma), which denotes ‘sum’.

### A Little More on What is Absolute Frequency

It is the number of times a certain value appears in a set of data collected during a trial. For example, let’s assume, a survey is being conducted among 60 respondents, with a survey question, how many cigarettes each of them smokes on a given day. Each of the respondents would give different answers. The numbers may be 0,2, 5, 2, 7, 10, 5, 6, 10, 0 and so on. Among these 60 responses, there would be a certain number of “5” answers, a certain number of “2”, a certain number “6” etc. The number of times a respondent answered “6” would be the absolute frequency of “6”. That is the number of times the number “6” would appear in the data set. Similarly, the number of times the number “2” would appear in the data set will be the absolute frequency of the answer “2”.

### Reference for “Absolute Frequency”

https://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/absolute_frequency.asp

https://www.sangakoo.com › Syllabus › Probability and Statistics › Statistics

https://www.ditutor.com/statistics/absolute_frequency.html

mathworld.wolfram.com › Probability and Statistics › Descriptive Statistics

https://www.statista.com › Encyclopedia › A

**Academic Research on Absolute Frequency**

The Bhattacharyya metric as an absolute similarity measure for frequency coded data, Aherne, F. J., Thacker, N. A., & Rockett, P. I. (1998). *Kybernetika*, *34*(4), 363-368. This paper presents beneficial properties of the Bhattacharyya metric over the chi-squared statistic for comparing distributed data. It also reviews the original interpretation of the Bhattacharyya metric as a geometric similarity measure and suggests that this derivation is independent of the use of the Bhattacharyya measure as an upper bound on the misclassification in a two-class problem.

What made us ever think we could individualize using statistics?, Stoney, D. A. (1991). *Journal of the Forensic Science Society*, *31*(2), 197-199. This article shows that forensic identification is based upon weak conceptual foundations. It focuses specifically on two theoretical pillars of forensic identification which are the notions of individualization and uniqueness. These notions are believed by practitioners and legal actors to involve the conceptual foundations of forensic identification.

Absolute Frequency Measurement of the Transitions in Hydrogen and Deuterium: New Determination of the Rydberg Constant, De Beauvoir, B., Nez, F., Julien, L., Cagnac, B., Biraben, F., Touahri, D., … & Zondy, J. J. (1997). *Physical Review Letters*, *78*(3), 440. This study performs a pure optical frequency measurement of the 2S-8S/D two-photon transitions in atomic hydrogen and deuterium. These frequencies are positively comparable to a new frequency standard which is a diode laser stabilized to a two-photon transition at 778 nm in rubidium.

The myocardial signature: absolute backscatter, cyclical variation, frequency variation, and statistics, Rhyne, T. L., Sagar, K. B., Wann, S. L., & Haasler, G. (1986). *Ultrasonic imaging*, *8*(2), 107-120. This paper discusses the absolute myocardial backscatter as a function of the frequency and phase of the cardiac cycle. This was done through the calibration of the ultrasonic instrumentation and the random diffraction process. It discovers a first-order model where the scattering from the myocardium is Rayleigh scattering with a cardiac cycle variation in the scattering cross-section.

The method of absolute judgment in psychophysics., Wever, E. G., & Zener, K. E. (1928). *Psychological Review*, *35*(6), 466. This study establishes a specific degree of knowledge of a series of stimuli and presents single members of the series for absolute judgment. This method of absolute judgment was then compared with the method of constant stimuli, and it was found that the psychometric curves of the two were substantially similar.