A Posteriori Definition
A posteriori is a Latin phrase that means “from the later.” It refers to knowledge gained following the analysis of an issue. It is the opposite of A Priori, which is knowledge obtained prior an analysis. It is deemed to be experiential whereas its opposite – a priori is deemed to be universal.
A Little More on What is A Posteriori
As knowledge gained after the analysis of an issue, it is understood to be synonymous with knowledge acquired via experience.
In philosophy, a posteriori refers to the type of knowledge acquired through experience and the analysis of facts. In this regard, it derives from inductive reasoning. It is very much unlike a priori, which is knowledge gained purely on reason and does not require the validation through experience. Plainly stated, a posteriori requires experiences in order to be valid.
Postulation made a posteriori are generally supported by anecdotal and empirical evidence. For instance: “Some people are tall” is an a posteriori statement validated by the experience of encountering individuals that exceed what you perceive to be the average height.
References for A Priori and A Posteriori
Academic Research on A Priori and A Posteriori
Strategic orientation of business enterprises: The construct, dimensionality, and measurement, Venkatraman, N. (1989). Management science, 35(8), 942-962.
This paper expounds on the findings of a research aimed at developing valid measurements of key dimensions of a strategy construct—termed Strategic Orientation of Business Enterprises.
A survey on the flexibility requirements related to business processes and modeling artifacts, Nurcan, S. (2008, January). In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Proceedings of the 41st Annual (pp. 378-378). IEEE. This paper analyzes the complexity of requirements in business planning.
Statistical concepts of a priori and a posteriori risk classification in insurance, Antonio, K., & Valdez, E. A. (2012). AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, 96(2), 187-224.
This paper looks into the classification of risks which involves the grouping of risks into various classes that share a homogeneous set of characteristics allowing the actuary to reasonably price discriminate.
The value of business planning before start-up—A decision-theoretical perspective, Chwolka, A., & Raith, M. G. (2012). Journal of Business Venturing, 27(3), 385-399.
Analysis is given in this paper concerning business planning from the perspective of the nascent entrepreneur.
A generalization of automobile insurance rating models: the negative binomial distribution with a regression component, Dionne, G., & Vanasse, C. (1989). ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the IAA, 19(2), 199-212. This paper aims at providing an extension of a popular model of tariffication in automobile insurance.
An experiment in Delphi estimation in marketing decision making, Best, R. J. (1974). Journal of Marketing Research, 448-452.
Are economic time series asymmetric over the business cycle?, Neftci, S. N. (1984). Journal of Political Economy, 92(2), 307-328. This paper tests the hypothesis that unemployment rates display an asymmetrical pattern over different phases of the business cycle.
Towards a theory of timing: Kairology in business networks, Hedaa, L., & Törnroos, J. Å. (2002). Making time. Time and management in modern organizations, 31-45.
Problem shifts and market research: the role of networks in business relationships, Borg, E. A. (1991). Scandinavian Journal of Management, 7(4), 285-295. This article expounds on changes in approach to the study of business relationships, and sees the paradigm ideology as constituting an inadequate basis for describing gradually evolving changes in the perception of business.
Enhancing the trustworthiness of qualitative research in international business, Sinkovics, R. R., Penz, E., & Ghauri, P. N. (2008). Management International Review, 48(6), 689-714. This paper advocates the use of formalised and software-based procedures for the analysis and interpretation of qualitative interview data.