Joint Venture – Explained

Cite this article as: Jason Mance Gordon, "Joint Venture – Explained," in The Business Professor, updated January 12, 2015, last accessed April 8, 2020,
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Characteristics of Joint Ventures
This video explains what are the primary characteristics of a joint venture.

Next Article: Limited Partnership Explained


What is a “joint venture”?

Joint ventures operate similarly to general partnerships, but they are specifically formed for a limited purpose or a single project. Unlike a general partnership, the joint venture does not arise by default through the activity of the joint venturers; rather, it requires the specific intent and agreement of the parties. As such, a joint venture agreement should be in writing to avoid the interpretation of the activity as a general partnership. Accomplishing a specific goal or working on a specific project is a key characteristic of the joint venture. If the joint venture is repeated, it makes it more likely that a court would interpret the relationship to be a general partnership.

•    Note: The joint venturers may be individuals or business entities; however, it is most commonly used by two separate business entities to undertake a special project or commercial activity. They are particularly common when one business wishes to expand operations into a new market, such as when expanding sales to a foreign country.

•    Example: ABC Corp is interested in expanding its product sales into China. China has proven to be a difficult regulatory environment and customer market for US companies. Instead of entering the China market directly, ABC Corp decides to do a test run of its product sales with 123 Corp, a Chinese company. ABC and 123 agree to jointly sell and market ABC’s product in China for a 6 month period. At the end of the period ABC Corp can decide if it wishes to enter into the Chinese market directly or pursue distributor or licensing relationships.

•    Discussion: Can you identify an example of a prominent joint venture?

•    Practice Question: When is operating as a joint venture an effective business strategy?

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