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Strategic Management – Definition

Strategic Management Definition

Strategic management simply refers to the regulation, planning, monitoring and controlling of an organization’s resources to achieve its goals. For an organization’s goals to be achieved, first, clear objectives need to be set. It is the strategic management, monitoring and control of these objectives that will yield fantasstic results. This management includes the initiatives that top officials of an organization come up with in order to align the practices of the organization with its goals and objectives.

A Little More on What is Strategic Management

Strategic management has both prescriptive and descriptive approaches. While the prescriptive approach shows how the strategies should be developed, descriptive approach treats that practise of these strategies. Scholars are pitched in diverse schools of thoughts regarding the analytical process and principles of strategic management. Aside from strategic management, other factors help an organization achieve its goals and objectives, these include skills and proficiency of employees as well as the market where the organization operates. Some scholars are of the opinion that rather than relying on top officials like the CEO who might not be devoted to strategic management, some employees might be more committed to strategy. The inward and outward perspectives of strategic management are also considered.

Strategic Management in Practice

There is more to strategy management that its theory, this is its practise. It is the practise of strategic management that enables an organization achieve its goals. Hence, practising strategic management is as crucial as planning it, in fact, its plans are shown in practise as this is crucial in helping an organization achieve its goals and objectives. Also, strategic management are not limited to internal practices, external communication practices are also important to help a company realise its goals. Instances of strategic management in practices are exhibit in cases where the management incorporate both internal and external factors that help an organization meet its goals and objectives.

References for Strategic Management

Academic Research on Strategic management

Dynamic capabilities and strategic management, Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Strategic management journal, 18(7), 509-533. This journal examines the methods of wealth creation, strategic management and dynamic capabilities employed by organizations that operate in technologically advancing environments. This paper discovers that the coordinating and dynamic abilities of the management of firms reflect in their unique processes and positions. This paper suggests dynamic capabilities as a framework that analyses the sources and method of wealth creation that firms use. This framework suggests that private wealth creation in regions where rapid technological change are rampant depends on the harmonization of managerial, organizational and technological processes that the firms adopt.

Using the balanced scorecard as a strategic management system, Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (1996). A balanced scorecard expand traditional financial measures with benchmarks for performance in three key areas. These areas include how a company relates with its customers, the key internal processes of a company and the learning and growth of a company. This paper examines using the balanced scorecard as a strategic management system.  It also studied the basic processes that the balanced scorecard relies on through which it augments short-term activities and long-term objectives. If further highlights how building a scorecard can help firm managers link their immediate actions with their future goals.

Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments, Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1989). Strategic management journal, 10(1), 75-87.  This paper investigates the strategic management of small firms that operate in hostile environment and those operating in accommodating and considerate environment. This paper examines the imperative responses of these firms to both environmental hostility and benignment. With the data collected from 161 small manufacturers, this paper studies the organization structure, their competitive tactics, how environmental hostility and benignment affect them as well as their financial performance. This paper finds out that the performance of small firms in hostile environments was positively associated with a competitive profile, entrepreneurial strategic posture and other vital factors. Small firms in benign environment on the other hand, have their performance positively related to conservative strategic posture, mechanic structure among others.

The resource‐based view within the conversation of strategic management, Mahoney, J. T., & Pandian, J. R. (1992). Strategic management journal, 13(5), 363-380. This paper examines the resource-based view within conversation of strategic management. Scholars discuss the resource-based within conversation of strategic management approach in three perspectives. The first perspective maintains that insights from a company’s distinctive competencies and capabilities should be incorporated in the conversation of strategic management. The second perspective holds that the resource-based view fits comfortably within the organizational economics paradigm. The third perspective however regard resource-based view as a complement to organizational research. This paper also treats vital areas relating to conversation of strategic management.

Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies, Hulland, J. (1999). Strategic management journal, 20(2), 195-204. This is a research in strategic management that discusses the use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management. Four recent studies have however been done studying this same concept, this paper harmonizes these studies and gives a review. Developments in causal modeling techniques have made is possible for researchers to examine both theory and measures, however, researchers who use causal modeling approaches need to understand the limitations of these approaches. This paper however finds out that the familiarity of researcher with partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management is low. It suggests basic standards for evaluating PLS application in the nearest future.

Is the resource-based “view” a useful perspective for strategic management research?, Priem, R. L., & Butler, J. E. (2001). Academy of management review, 26(1), 22-40. The resource-based view (RBV) is an emerging framework in strategic management research. This paper examines whether this framework is a useful perspective for strategic management research or not. Although, RBV is not a theoretical structure, it is perceived to have the potential to assume stability in product markets and determining resource values. This however examines the resource-based view structure as a perspective for strategic management. It also highlights possible problems associated with RBV and gives answers to “how” questions of RBV.

The Contributions of Industrial Organization To Strategic Management,, Porter, M. E. (1981). Academy of management review, 6(4), 609-620. Industrial organization often need strategic management as a means of stimulating their companies so that they can achieve set goals and objectives. There are also some notable contributions of industrial organization to strategic management. This paper studies the development of industrial organization theory in the 1970s. Mason paradigm of industrial organization (IO) offered strategic management as a systematic model to assess competition within an industry. This model however seldomly used in the business policy field. This paper also examines how the development of industrial organization bridged the had between both IO and BP (Business Policy) field.

Strategic management and economics, Rumelt, R. P., Schendel, D., & Teece, D. J. (1991). Strategic management journal, 12(S2), 5-29. Economics and strategic management are different disciplines but both similar in specific areas. This paper investigates the relationship between strategic management and economics. It expresses diverse viewpoints enacting the relationship that exist between these two concepts and also how much they have been able to contribute to each other. This paper identifies how these concepts have benefited each other and how to further enhance the relationship between economics and strategic management.

Strategic management in an enacted world, Smircich, L., & Stubbart, C. (1985). Academy of management Review, 10(4), 724-736. The performance of strategic management in the enacted world has often been a topic for debate. This is because researchers are keen on knowing the status of strategic management of organizational environments due to different perceived views and nature of the environment.For instance, the interpretative worldview of environments posit that they are enacted. Also, organizational environments can either be objective or perceive, but in some cases, they can be both. This paper examines the implications of enacted environment of the strategic management practice and theory. The opportunities, constraints and threats on enacted environments are explored. this paper further examines the roles of strategic managers.

Strategic management, Best, R., de Valence, G., & Langston, C. (2007). In Workplace Strategies and Facilities Management (pp. 91-102). Routledge. This paper the impacts of strategic management in workplace strategies and facilities management. This paper outlines the vitality of strategic management for facility managers. Managers need to acquire knowledge on the theory and practise of strategic management for them to manage effectively. It studies how the knowledge of strategic management would help managers deliver significant values to their companies.

A stakeholder approach to strategic management, Freeman, R. E., & McVea, J. (2001). Another idea that is adopted and applied in strategic management is ‘stakeholder management.’ This paper investigates factors that led to the emergence of this idea and how it has been adopted in the practise of strategic management. It further examines the distinguishing factors  of the stakeholder management approach and its characteristics. Furthermore, the impacts of the stakeholder management approach in strategic management cannot be sidelined. This paper review a recent study on the stakeholder approach and its impacts on strategic management.

Corporate entrepreneurship and strategic management: Insights from a process study, Burgelman, R. A. (1983). Management science, 29(12), 1349-1364. Using insights from a process study, this paper discusses corporate entrepreneurship and how strategic management has influenced it. This paper presents a framework of strategic process that is embellished with theoretical and empirical findings. This paper reveals that firms need both diversity and order in their strategic activities to maintain their viability. The roles of middle Level managers in the creation of strategic initiatives is also identified, middle managers can redefine the strategic management context of a firm. It further highlights what strategic managers at the top need to focus on and top management’s critical contribution in strategic management.

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