Kano Analysis Definition
It is a theory used in the development of the product and the fulfilling of the customer needs. This theory was invented by Professor Noriak Kano in the 1980s. It categorized customer needs into five classes.
A Little More on What is Kano Analysis
The categories have been changed to the English language by use of different terminologies like satisfiers, dissatisfiers, exciters amongst others. All in all, they all make references to the works done by Kano.
These are the expectations of customers that are never given serious consideration. Customers tend to be dissatisfied when performed poorly while they become neutral when done well. Kano referred to them as “must-be” due to the fact that they are not only the basic needs to be considered but also the price involved when penetrating the market. Examples include greeting customers in a call center and providing a clean room in a hotel, all termed as basic needs.
When it is fulfilled, it leads to satisfaction and dissatisfaction in case it is not achieved. These are the factors which people discuss and also result in competition amongst the companies. A practical case is a packet of milk containing 10 percent more milk sold at a similar price. This enhances customer satisfaction. On the other hand, the customer will feel cheated and dissatisfied if the milk contains only 6% but at a similar price. Examples include the time spent in ironing out customer concern during a call.
These features enhance satisfaction when fully realized, but don’t result in dissatisfaction when not achieved. They are those attributes that are never predicted or expected for instance using a thermometer to find out milk temperature. No one speaks about these unexpected attributes which excite customers. Examples include call centers where prompt and efficient customer attendance may not be appreciated neither it may be necessary to satisfy customers. The same narrative is applicable to hotels and restaurants.
These are the features that are neither positive nor negative and do not lead to either customer dissatisfaction or customer satisfaction. For instance, the level of thickness of the wax on a carton of milk. This may be very very important in designing and manufacturing while consumers may not be familiar with those differences. It is normally advisable to point out those aspects of the product and limit them; this will reduce the cost of production. Examples include prompt and efficient responses in a call center which may not be appreciated.
These are the high level of achievement that results to dissatisfaction and the different nature of customers. A case example is whereby some customers like high technology products while others like basic products and tend to be dissatisfied with complex products. Examples are a call center using a lot of complex languages, using a lot of pleasantries, excessive scripts while addressing customers. Also in hotels setting high standards that you cannot meet makes customers not to be satisfied.
References for Kano Analysis
Academic Research on Kano Analysis
An analytical Kano model for customer needs analysis, Xu, Q., Jiao, R. J., Yang, X., Helander, M., Khalid, H. M., & Opperud, A. (2009). Design Studies, 30(1), 87-110. The author in this article utilizes analytical Kano model while concentrating on the needs of the customer. Two mechanisms are suggested to give decision support in designing of products. These mechanisms include the configuration index for designing product configuration and the Kano classifiers used for classifying the needs of the customer. We find out that A-Kano model has the capacity to consider preferences of customers when designing the product.
Geothermal power plant maintenance: Evaluating maintenance system needs using quantitative kano analysis, Atlason, R. S., Oddsson, G. V., & Unnthorsson, R. (2014). Energies, 7(7), 4169-4184. The study is done using a quantitative Kano model and single out which characteristics are considered by engineers at the high-level maintenance in the Icelandic geothermal power plants to maintain software tools. The article reveals solutions regarding planning maintenance, shortening times of documentation and analysis of risk by energy firms.
Integrating refined Kano model, quality function deployment, and grey relational analysis to improve service quality of nursing homes, Yeh, T. M., & Chen, S. H. (2014). Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 24(2), 172-191. This paper is determined with discussing service quality in nursing fraternity and the factors which influence the quality of service in Taiwan. The author goes ahead to use Grey Relational Analysis which established that medical standards in the field of nursing need enhancement. It advocated for items such as “professional capability”, “communication skills”, “educational training”, “degree of understanding patients” amongst others.
A Kano Analysis of Students Preferences to Management Institutes, Bhola, S. S., & Rishikesh, N. (2013). This article uses the Kano model to investigate the expectations of students from Management Institutes. The student expectations, in this case, include a computer lab, infrastructure, and a library. The author analyzed student responses by use of Kano Methodology which entails forming questionnaires and evaluation of Kano parameters. The author reveals that many parameters are classified in one-dimensional requirement. In addition to this, there are no similar preferences for one-dimensional requirement.
Application of Kano model in requirements analysis of Y company’s consulting project, Huang, J. (2017). American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 7(07), 910. More firms have resorted to being customer -focused instead of being business-focused in the service industries. By use of the Kano Model in the classification and analysis in the needs of Y Company’s project; we consider effective aspects that can enhance Y Company’s satisfaction and how to enhance the quality of services
The Kano Model Analysis of Features for Mobile Security Applications, Mei-Ling, Y. A. O., Chuang, M. C., & Chun-Cheng, H. S. U. (2018). Computers & Security. This survey focuses on 12 main mobile security and antivirus components from the first 25 Mobile Security Applications (MSA) to establish how users assess quality attributes by use of a two-dimensional questionnaire Kano Model. The outcomes reveal that all features can be categorized either as indifferent quality or one-dimensional. The most common four features with a large influence on the satisfaction of customers are “privacy protection”, “malware prevention”, “safe browsing” and “parental control”. In conclusion, MSA vendors with high quality must enhance their design features so as to satisfy customers more.
Kano Analysis of Employability Skills for Functional Area of Management-A Case Study of MBA Program, More, D. K., & Nalawade, R. K. (2017). A Journal of research articles in management science and allied areas (refereed), 10(1), 29-36. This article is concerned with Kano analysis on employability skills in areas of management. An MBA is used in this study as a case study.
Identification of Critical to Quality Elements for Intensive Care Rounds by Kano Analysis, Tripathi, S., Henrekin, L. L., Read, C. D., & Welke, K. F. (2017). Pediatric Quality & Safety, 2(4), e027. This article talks about how optimal performance requires high levels of efficient data transfer and efficient decision making. The author reveals how methods of the survey do not discriminate on the elements for intensive care rounds. In addition to this, Kano analysis investigates the needs of customers from rounds.
Comparing Kano model and the penalty–reward contrast analysis of sport spectators’ experiences, Gau, L. S., Dung, Y., Huang, P. J., & Kim, J. C. The paper looks into the quality aspects that can either result in customer frustration or satisfaction. The survey entailed a number of items while taking into consideration both good and bad perspectives of satisfaction. It is established that a cumbersome and long questionnaire may impact on the quality of data in the process of collecting the data. Penalty-Reward Contrast Analysis(PRCA) which utilizes regression analysis have some benefits compared to the Kano model. Some of its benefits include the fact that the questionnaire does not repeat questions regarding human feelings whether the attributes are fulfilled or not.PRCA also got shorter and efficient questions compared to Kano which may result in high quality of data. The outcomes of these two analyses were then compared in various categories like athletes vs non-athletes, all gender, low versus high degree of involvement. In addition to this, Kano analysis and Penalty-Reward Contrast Analysis may have completely different ideologies and reasoning. Lastly, the author summarizes by claiming that the Kano model of research may not be replaced by the Penalty-Reward Contrast Analysis hence agreeing with the findings of for Mikulic and Prebezac’s (2011)
Analyzing Dynamic Change in Customer Requirements: An Approach Using Review-Based Kano Analysis, Min, H., Yun, J., & Geum, Y. (2018). Sustainability, 10(3), 746.
The article highlights to us that depending with Kano model, the needs of customers for some functions change with time because customers get attracted to the characteristic of the new service then later fails to take them seriously with time. The author proposes a customer review-based approach to reveal Kano model dynamics. This is due to the fact that customer reviews are good sources of finding out their needs. In addition to this, various aspects of customer needs are investigated from the perception of the Kano model.
A comparative Kano analysis on customer satisfaction based on customer and employment perspectives, Noorinasab, S., & Hemati, M. (2012). Management Science Letters, 2(5), 1555-1562. The aim of this article is to suggest a hybrid aspect to find out critical criteria by use of Kano three-dimensional model and give them a priority by use of the analytical hierarchy process. The survey investigates 25 distinct attributes and classifies them in 3 different categories following the Kano model. The outcomes of the research reveal that employees and customer pose the same views because of 21 attributes cutting across. Nevertheless, the preferences of these 21 attributes are usually separate amongst the different categories of customers and employees.