What are intergroup negotiations, and how do they affect a negotiation?
Intergroup negotiation is where parties identify with their organization and interact with the other party in terms of his or her membership in other organizations. Challenges of intergroup negotiations include:
- Stereotyping – This is a bias in which one team assumes that all individuals in a group think or will act in conformity with a preconceived notion.
- Changing identities – Groups are often not static. New members may join and existing members may leave. It is important to address new members in the same manner as old.
- In-group bias – Positive evaluations of one’s own group relative to an out-group; and downward social comparison – downward social comparison. Situations in which people compare themselves to someone (or a group) who is less fortunate, able, accomplished, or lower in status.
- Extremism and naïve realism – A principle in which people expect others to hold views of the world similar to their own.
Tactics for optimizing intergroup negotiations include:
- Conflict separation – Separate conflict of interest from symbolic conflict. The GRIT model (Graduated and Reciprocal Initiative in Tension Reduction) – Unilateral conciliatory actions designed to de-escalate a conflict.
- Common Identity – Search for common identity between groups.
- Seek Diverse Input – Avoid the out-group homogeneity bias.