“Incoterms” are commercial terms that ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) published. They are pre-defined. Basically, the traders use these terms for a better understanding of their business processes at national as well as international levels. They are in compliance with the ICL (International Commercial Law). So, the traders, councils and lawyers encourage using these terms. Clear communication among the trading parties is attributed to the use of Incoterms. It covers all the important terms, including obligations, prices, risks, payables, delivery, credit terms, etc.
A Little More on What is Incoterms
ICC introduced it in 1936. These are regularly updated to maintain any changes that appear in trading sectors. Because of being updated constantly, the contract must mention the particular version, it is using, e.g. Incoterms 2012. The trade terms seem similar in use but they may be different in meaning when we use them on a domestic level. So, to stay away from any kind of misunderstanding in international trading, Incoterms are termed. it saves the trading organizations from any confusion. These terms clearly state all the obligations that a buyer and a seller is bound to comply with.
Incoterm Rules for Any Mode of Transportation
There are certain incoterm rules that are used for any type of goods transportation:
- DAT stands for Delivered at Terminal. DAT bounds the seller for the safe delivery of goods to loading and then unloading terminals while bearing all the costs of transportation. Any risk or damage to goods goes into the account of the seller until the goods are unloaded. However, after unloading; the buyer is accountable for all charges and damages to products until they reach the destination.
- Delivered Duty Paid also known as DDP. This incoterm signifies that a seller will ensure the safer delivery of goods to the designated place agreed between the buyer and the seller. DDP also determines that the seller would pay all types of taxes during this due process. However, the unloading process is the responsibility of the buyer solely. According to this term, the seller is more responsible for the trade obligations than the buyer. The intense care of products and the procedure of bearing all types of costs to the unloading terminal often increases delays in the delivery of goods.
- EXW specifies buyers responsibilities and role in details. The seller has the one responsibility of ensuring the availability of goods at his business point or any other point for pickup. The buyer will collect the goods from that place. The seller does not share any type of costs during the transportation of goods. The buyer will bear all types of transportation charges and risks from the start to the end.
- ICC abbreviates all incoterms and they have international recognition.
ICC has defined incoterm rules for inland waterways and sea transport
- Free on board – FOB 2010 incoterm specifies that the seller or the buyer is responsible to deliver the goods in a specified container. Any risk and transportation charges will be borne by the buyer or the seller according to the agreed terms and conditions. They might be FOB (Free on Board) shipping place or its destination place. They are liable to provide accurate details of the ship and the port for the delivery of goods.
- CIF-Cost Insurance and Freight. This obligates the seller for undamaged transportation of goods in the designated container and the safe unloading of goods. CIF binds the seller not only to pay the insurance for the transportation of goods to the agreed port but also for the loading charges. After this, the buyer collects the items and affords all costs and risks of carrying the goods from the container to the destination warehouse.
References for Incoterms
Academic Research on Incoterms
- • • ICC Guide to Incoterms 2000, Ramberg, J. (1999). This paper is a standardized and complete guide of Incoterms 2000 complying ICC rules.
- • To What Extend Do Incoterms 2000 Vary Articles 67 (2), 68 and 69, Ramberg, J. (2005). JL & Com., 25, 219. The study addresses the level of variations in different articles of Incoterms 2000 in the context of section 67 to 69.
- • INCOTERMS 2010, Ramberg, J. (2011). Eur. JL Reform, 13, 380. The author elaborates the reforms of 2010 Incoterms to use for Trading Contract.
- • Incoterms 2010: The newest revision of delivery terms, Bergami, R. (2012). Acta Universitatis Bohemiae Meridionales, 15(2), 33-40. This paper states Incoterms 2010 and presents a revised and novel perspective on the delivery of goods to trading parties. This researcher has performed a detailed comparison between the changes of incoterms 2000 and incoterms 2010. The comparative analysis of incoterms 2000 and 2010 has the context of risk management to save the traders from any business risks that traders might face while they are using these terms. For instance, the complexity of terms remains unresolved, especially; in the context of the FOB term. Instead of FOB, DAT (Delivered at Terminal) and DAP (Delivered at Place) are more appropriate terms that can help to understand the cross border transactions such as European Union Trade Ports or European Union business Blocks. The 2010 Incoterms provide better, easy and improved definitions of executing business in a better way with productive results. 2010 Incoterms highlight the benefits of using new terms. It also highlights the context of old terms as old terms are outdated and do not elaborate on the recent trading mechanism. However, there is a reluctant attitude by businessmen doing business in old fashion as they cling to old terms and methods of doing business. Such an attitude and the working mechanism will spoil the hard work of ICC that it has done to revolutionize the old trading system.
- • Incoterms 2010 and the mode of transport: how to choose the right term, Malfliet, J. (2011). In Management Challenges in the 21st Century: Transport and Logistics: Opportunity for Slovakia in the Era of Knowledge Economy (pp. 163-179). City University of Seattle Bratislava. This paper explains how to select the right term and Incoterms 2010 for logistics and the methods of successful delivery of goods.
- • Facilitating international electronic commerce by formalising the Incoterms, Foekens, A., Mitrakas, A., & Tan, Y. H. (1997, January). In System Sciences, 1997, Proceedings of the Thirtieth Hawaii International Conference on (Vol. 4, pp. 459-467). IEEE. The research has been carried out to highlight the role of Incoterms in relation to facilitating global e-commerce. Incoterms, global trading terms, are unique examples of valuable trading conditions used for economic transactions. This paper produces incoterms’ analysis based on reasoning. The analysis indicates that there are diverse types of deontic as well as defeasible logics within the Incoterms. Many Incoterm principles are declared according to deontic concepts eg. obligation and consent. The majority of regulations contain defeasible nature in context and they are meant for usual cases, however, they are overruled in outstanding situation. The outcome of this rational study would add to the argument relating deontic function and defeasible reasoning for the demonstration of and logic associated with legal fields. This paper illustrates how, depending upon rational analysis, we can apply a legal consultative system for incoterms in Prolog. It can be changed in a legal consultative system as that can give suggestions to the traders and they can select favourable Incoterms to make trading contracts.
- • Transfer of risk from seller to buyer in international commercial contracts: A comparative analysis of risk allocation under the CISG, UCC and INCOTERMS, Oberman, N. G. (2016). Trabajo no publicado. This paper is about a shift of risks from the seller to the buyer in the global trading contracts under the guideline of Incoterms, CISG and UCC. Throughout the known global history, commercial trade appears as a primary liking for humans. Communities from diverse geographical locations always searched for strong financial status by enforcing successful commercial networks. This research evaluated the level of risk allocation that appears in global trading contracts including a particular evaluation of UN Trade Convention related to the sale of products. The research also evaluates the role and significance of ICC terms in relation to Incoterms and the role of UCC. The research will highlight some strong points that split the research into two primary sections. The first section is descriptive, this section examines the legal basis and their role in this matter. The second section explores and reviews the information on how UCC and Incoterms interact with regard to risk allocation. The focus of risk allocation is on the question that during global trading agreements breaches who is responsible for any damage or if goods are lost. It is convenient that products get insured during the transition of products. Furthermore, any damage to goods is identical when products reach to the destination and thus a buyer holds a stronger position comparing to the seller as the buyer can claim for any damage to goods from the insurance company. On the whole, risk allocation relies upon the selection of law that contracting parties agree upon. These rules provide every type of answer in advance to all the problems that may arise. The decisive subsequent of the assessment is that any risk allocation stipulations in accordance with the performed paperwork are unique law entities. Finally, it can be described that the application of certain agreed rules as per Incoterms can help to identify the risk allocation that emerges in global commercial contracts.
- • Incoterms and UCC Article 2—Conflicts and Confusions, Spanogle, J. A. (1997). The International Lawyer, 111-132. This paper is about legal obligations during trade issues and confusions with the application of Incoterms and Article 2 of UCC.
- • Business environment factors, incoterms selection and export performance, Hien, N., Laporte, G., & Roy, J. (2009). Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2(2), 63-78. This research shows the role of Incoterms in operations and supply chain management in international trading context.
- • The link between Incoterms 2000 and Letter of Credit Documentation requirement and payment risk, Bergami, R. (2006). Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, 1(4), 49-58. This paper discusses the role of Incoterms 2000 in association with credit documentation, obligations and payment threats.
- • Logistics routing flexibility and lower freight costs through use of incoterms, Kumar, S. (2010). Transportation Journal, 49(3), 48-56. This research states that the application of Incoterms for reduced waterway trades and routing flexibility.
- • Incoterms 2010: Comments on the New Revision of Delivery Terms, Bergami, R. (2011). The Vindobona Journal of International Commercial Law and Arbitration, 15(1), 157-170. This paper throws light on the Incoterms 2010 and makes a detailed discussion and comments on the New Revision of Delivery Terms.