New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and New Source Review (NSR)
This is a federal set of uniform technology-based standards for new and modified sources of air pollution. These rules envision a best available technology (BAT) for categories of stationary air pollution sources. Standards can vary within each category according to class, type, and size of source. The NSPS establishes emission limitations achievable through application of adequately-demonstrated BAT, taking into account cost, non-air quality health or environmental impacts, and energy requirements. There is often controversy over what constitutes BAT, whether the EPA took into account the cost and other factors associated with compliance, and whether technology has been adequately demonstrated. NSR is one of the key programs designed to achieve compliance with the NAAQS through a pre-construction review process for new and modified stationary sources.
⁃ Note: Existing sources of air pollution must meet NAAQS but are exempt from many of the NSPS requirements.