- What is “Strategy”in Negotiation?
- How does “Motivational Orientation” affect strategic orientation?
- How does power in a negotiation effect selection of a strategic orientation”?
- What is a “strategic objective” in a negotiation?
- What are some strategic objectives associated with negative outcomes?
- What is the process for developing a strategic negotiation plan?
- What is “Self Assessment” when strategically planning a negotiation?
- How should you proceed to “Assess the Other Party” when strategically planning a negotiation?
- How do you “Assess the Situational Aspects” when strategically planning a negotiation?
- How do you assess the “Social Context” when strategically planning a negotiation?
- What other factors are understood to affect strategy in a negotiation?
- How does the presence of power in the negotiation influence tactics?
- Tactics aimed at persuading a counterparty?
- Tactics to facilitate bargain within the Zone of Potential Agreement?
- Dealing with Distributive Negotiation Tactics?
- Integrative negotiation tactics?
Flashcards - Strategy
___________ is the orientation or holistic approach of an individual toward achieving an outcome or objective.
Strategy includes the following:
Strategic Orientation; Strategic Objective; Strategic Plan
_____________ are short-term, adaptive moves designed to enact or pursue broad strategies.
______________ Is an orientation where one party’s objective is to beat or fair better than the other party.
______________ is an orientation toward avoiding conflict by accommodating another parties interests or objectives in a negotiation.
_______________ demonstrates an intention to engage in the back-and-forth that characterizes negotiation through a focus on “this-for-that” tradeoffs.
_______________ is an integrative or win-win orientation that seeks to cooperate in a way that creates additional total value in the negotiation.
Collaboration (Problem solving or Integrating)
_______________ Is a strategic orientation that seeks to achieve an acceptable outcome by not addressing the conflict of interest or dispute.
____________ motivation concerns a focus on what you are able to coerce out of the other party.
____________ motivation is a dominate or singular focus on furthering one’s interest in the negotiation.
____________ motivation concerns a focus on one’s actual or perceived entitlement(s) in a situation.
____________ focuses on securing value for oneself at all costs (namely at the expense of the other party).
__________ Negotiators seek to address the needs and interests (not positions) of all parties.
Willingness to share information is a characteristic of distributive bargaining situations. True or False.
Negotiators should focus on emphasizing the commonalities between the parties and minimizing the differences. True or False.
Negotiators should search for solutions that meet her personal needs and objectives to the exclusion of those of the other side. True or False.
A low level of concern for the other’s objectives may drive which of the following form(s) of behavior?
Self-centeredness; and Competitiveness
Factors commonly understood to affect strategic objectives and planning in a negotiation include:
- Creativity and Problem Solving
- Trust, Relationships, and Ethics affect Negotiations
- Multi-party or Team Negotiation
- Cross-cultural Negotiation
- Medium of Negotiation
Effective strategic preparation for a negotiation encompasses the following general ability(ies):
- Assessment of the counter party,
- Assessment of the situation,
- Assessment of the social context.
Identifying all the relevant interests in a negotiation and the desired outcome for each of these interests allows a person to establish a ___________.
__________ characterizes a situation in which a negotiator makes an offer or requests something that is immediately accepted by the opponent.
Under-aspiring negotiator (winner’s curse)
The ______________ seeks more (or far more) value in the negotiation that the other party is willing to concede.
Over-aspiring or positional negotiator
The _____________ determines a set of terms desired in a negotiation, presents those terms, and refuses to budge on any dimension of any issue.
_____________ is the tendency of a negotiator to devalue an option previously considered to be attractive (or more attractive), merely as a consequence of it being offered by the counter-party.
____________ is the salient number, figure, or value in a negotiation that appears to be valid but is actually arbitrary and/or has no basis in fact.
_____________ are monies or other value invested that cannot be recovered.
_____________ is a propensity of individuals to pay more to retain something that they own (or believe they own).
When assessing the other party in a negotiation, the most salient attribute(s) to determine include(s):
interests in the negotiation
- objectives (target points)
- resistance point
_________ entails gathering data or deriving information about the interests, BATNA, reservation point, and costs of delay or non-agreement.
_________ includes any straightforward method of determining key information about the other party.
Situational aspects represent any characteristic of the negotiation situation that are not personal to the negotiators or characteristic of the social climate between them. True or False.
The __________ context of a negotiation includes the social system of laws, customs, common business practices, cultural norms, and political cross-pressures.
Flashcards - Tactics
Power is an overarching theme that guides the selection of a strategic orientation, objective, and plan in a negotiation. True or False
A power tactic is always oppressive and abusive. True or False
___________ Is power that an individual has the ability to bring forward or exercise in the negotiation.
___________ is the power that a negotiators believes she and the counter-party they have.
___________ Is power that has been employed or exercised to influence the other party.
____________ can be defined as measures used to demonstrate potential power, cause perception of power, or the realization (or exercise of) actual power to influence the other party. These tactics are designed to use or change the power relationship.
____________ power is derived from the negotiator’s ability to assemble and organize facts and data to support his or her position, arguments, or desired outcomes.
____________ power is made up of personal, cognitive, and motivational orientation of the individual.
____________ is the “cognitive, motivational, and moral orientations to a given situation that serve to guide one’s behavior and responses to that situation.”
____________ is made up of three ideological perspectives – unitary, radical, and pluralist — each of which operates as a frame, shaping expectations about what one should pay attention to, how events will evolve, and how one should engage situations of power.
____________ Is a type of structural power comes from location in an organizational structure, but not necessarily a hierarchical one.
Network location power
____________ power relates to social structure, such as occupying a particular job, office, or position in an organizational hierarchy.
____________ power regards the control of resources and the capacity to give them to someone who will do what they want and withhold them (or take them away) from someone who doesn’t do what they want.
____________ power is divided into “legitimacy” and “resources”.
With Network location power, the particular location in the organization structure allows individuals to become powerful because of the way that their actions and responsibilities are embedded in the flows of information, goods and services, or contacts. True or False.
Relative to the concept of Network location power, ___________ power is the overall set of relationships (centrality, criticality or relevance, flexibility, visibility, and coalitions) within a social system.
___________ Power regards the level of dependence between the negotiators.
___________ power is divided into “goal interdependence” and “referent power”.
______________ refers to how the parties view their goals, how much achievement of their goals depends on the behavior of the other party, and how likely the parties will be to constructively use power.
______________ is generally based on an appeal to common experiences, common past, common fate, or membership in the same groups.
___________ is power based in the situation or environment in which negotiations take place. Time, location, method of communication, alternatives, third party involvement, and culture can be a source of power.
Power through Context
Power through Context includes the following context(s):
Culture; Alternatives; Agency or Representative relationships
____________ include direct, mindful, information-based routes to persuasion.
Central processing has the following prerequisite(s).
Motivation to think about the message and its topics; and Ability to think about the message and its topics
Which of the following is NOT an example of a central-route persuasion tactic?
Avoid thoughts of fairness
__________ employ automatic responses to subtle cues to persuade.
Peripheral route persuasion tactics
Which of the following is NOT an example of a peripheral-route persuasion tactic?
__________ Tactics, which are closely related to “hard ball tactics” are meant to claim value in a negotiation at the expense of the other party.
Which of the following is NOT closely associated with distributive tactics:
Which of the following is NOT a general tactic used in response to distributive tactics?
- Ignore them
- Respond in kind
- Co-opt the other party
___________ Is an integrative tactics that asks questions about interests and priorities and provide information about your interests and priorities.
Which of the following is NOT an example of an integrative negotiation tactic?
Take it or leave it offer
Which of the following is/are (a) common error(s) by negotiators that often do not lead to a win-win or integrative outcomes.
Overcommitment; Compromise; Relationship Focus
Which of the following is NOT a tactic used to facilitate (of finalize) a bargain that is within the zone of agreement?
Walking away from the table