___________ is the unique character of a social group such as shared values and norms that set it apart from other groups.
___________ concentrates on creating a catalogue of behaviors that the foreign negotiator should expect when entering a host culture (Janosik, 1987).
culture as a learned behavior
A ____________ attempts to understand negotiation focuses on why members of a culture behave in an given manner.
pragmatic approach to culture
The _____________ view concentrates on understanding the central values and norms of a culture and then building a model for how these norms and values influence negotiations within that culture.
_________ societies encourage their young to be independent and to look after themselves.
_________ societies integrate individuals into cohesive groups that take responsibility for the welfare of each individual.
_________ Is a form of motivation loss in which people in a group fail to contribute as much or work as hard as they would if they worked independently).
_________ Is a form of motivation in which people are concerned for the welfare of the group).
_________ the tendency to ascribe the cause of a person’s behavior to their character or underlying personality traits.
_________ the tendency to ascribe the cause of a person’s behavior to external factors and forces that are beyond a person’s control.
_________ Is the dimension that describes “the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally”.
_________ “indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.”
_________ approach posits that among their different values, all cultures contain dimensions or tensions that are called dialectics.
Culture as Dialects
_________ approach recognize all behavior may be understood at many different levels simultaneously, and a social behavior as complex as negotiation is determined by many different factors, one of which is culture.
Culture in Context
__________ suggests that cultural values will have a direct effect on negotiations in some circumstances and a moderated effect in others.
Cultural Complexity Theory
___________ involves the complexity associated with multiple political and legal systems.
Political and legal pluralism
________ Concerns the effect of economic conditions between countries, such as the exchange rate or currency value.
_________ negotiation refers to negotiations within one’s own culture.
_________ negotiation concerns negotiation between individuals from different cultures.
Identify the various aspects of differing cultures is shown to affect the negotiation process?
Definition of Negotiation
- Negotiation opportunity
- Selection of negotiators
- Time Sensitivity
- Risk propensity
- Groups versus individuals
- Nature of agreements
- Ethics and Tactics
Which of the following are key constraints or challenges in a negotiation attributable to culture.
Expanding and dividing the pie
- Sacred values
- Biased punctuation of conflict
- Affiliation bias
- Western Canon debate
- Fundamental attribution error
_________ Is the universal strong liking of one’s own group and the simultaneous negative evaluation of out-groups.
_________ occurs when people evaluate a person’s actions on the basis of their group connections, rather than on the merits of the behavior itself.
_________ Is the human tendency to believe that we see the world around us objectively, and that people who disagree with us must be uninformed, irrational, or biased.
_________ Is the argument that the body of scholarship is biased because the traditional main focus of academic studies of Western Culture and history has only been on works produced by European men.
Western Canon debate
_________ occurs when people attribute the behavior of others to underlying dispositions or character and discount the role of situational factors.
Fundamental attribution error
Negotiators should concentrate on understanding the following things, except:
Manipulating the other party’s understanding
In a low cultural familiarity context, which of the following tactics is NOT generally effective:
Control every aspect of the negotiation personally.
In a moderate cultural familiarity context, which of the following tactics have proven effective:
Adapt to the other party’s approach (unilateral strategy); Coordinate adjustment (joint strategy).
In a high cultural familiarity context, which of the following tactics have proven effective:
Improvise an approach (joint strategy); Effect symphony (joint strategy).
The following personal factor(s) tend to predict success in intercultural negotiation and should be considered when selecting an intercultural negotiation strategy.
- Task orientation