- What is perception in the context of negotiation?
- What is “Cognitive Framing” in the context of negotiation?
- Mental models of negotiation?
- What are “Cognitive Biases” in negotiations?
- What is “risk” and how does “risk perception” affect a negotiation?
- How do perceptions of entitlement and fairness affect negotiations?
- How does social comparison affect perceptions of fairness?
- What is the effect of mood and emotions in negotiation?
- What role does creativity play in negotiations?
____________ is the process by which individuals connect to their environment, by ascribing meaning to messages and events.
___________ is a common phenomenon in negotiations in which a perceiver’s own needs, desires, motivation and personal experiences may create a predisposition about the other party.
___________ occurs when one individual assigns attributes to another solely on the basis of the other’s membership in a particular social or demographic category.
___________ occurs when people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.
___________ occurs when the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief and filters out information that does not confirm that belief.
___________ occurs when people assign to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves.
A ___________ is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations, leading them to pursue or avoid subsequent actions.
___________ Is a cognitive frame in which people are often concerned about what they need, desire, or want.
___________ is a cognitive frame in which people may also be concerned about who is “right”—that is, who has legitimacy, who is correct, or what is fair.
___________ Is a cognitive frame based upon who is physically stronger or is able to coerce the other, but more often, it is about imposing other types of costs – economic pressures, expertise, legitimate authority, and so on.
___________ is a cognitive frame based upon a focus on what the conflict is about. Parties taking a substantive frame have a particular disposition about the key issue or concern in the conflict.
___________ is a cognitive frame based upon a party’s predisposition to achieving a specific result or outcome from the negotiation.
___________ is a cognitive frame based upon a focus on satisfying a broader set of interests or needs in negotiation.
___________ is a cognitive frame based upon aa focus on how (the process by which) the parties will go about resolving their dispute.
___________ is a cognitive frame based upon a focus on how the parties define “who they are.”
___________ is a cognitive frame based upon how the parties see and define the other parties.
___________ is a cognitive frame based upon how the parties define the risk or reward associated with particular outcomes.
Negotiators can use more than one cognitive frame at a time. True or False
___________ are the ways in which people understand social and physical systems.
___________ is a competitive mindset where each negotiator tries to obtain the biggest share of the bargaining zone.
__________ is a logic-based model that draws more heavily upon a collaborative strategy used to expand the potential value available.
__________ (model) is characteristic of a competitive bargaining strategy in which one party seeks to maximize their value by outmaneuvering the other party.
__________ (model) is characteristic of negotiators who build rapport to nurture long-term relationships and often make sacrifices to uphold the relationship.
__________ (model) seeks to come to a firm, logical outcome that resolves any conflicts.
___________ Is when a negotiator assumes that all the interest at stake are finite or a fixed sum and the counter-party’s interests are directly and completely opposed to one’s own.
Erroneous fixed-pie beliefs
___________ Is a situation in which conflict does not exist between people, yet they erroneously perceive the presence of conflict.
__________ Is when negotiators make decisions that stick with a failing course of action
Irrational escalation of commitment
__________ is the tendency of negotiators to believe that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than is actually true.
__________ bias, a type of “tunnel vision”, is a high degree of self-focus in any situation or interaction.
_________ Are when people explain another person’s behavior by making attributions, either to the person or the situation, that are founded in personal biases.
_________ Are biases present in a perspective or point of view that people use when they gather information and solve problems.
Issue framing bias
_________ Is a bias that operates when information that is presented in vivid, colorful, or attention-getting ways becomes easy to recall, and thus also becomes central and critical in evaluating events and options.
Information availability bias
____________ is the tendency of negotiators, particularly in an auction setting, to settle quickly on an item and then subsequently feel discomfort about a negotiation win that comes too easily.
____________ is the tendency to overvalue something you own or believe you possess.
____________ is the process of devaluing the other party’s concessions simply because the other party made them.
___________ is the probability of an undesirable outcome.
___________ Concerns one’s willingness to accept the possibility of an outcome that is negative or does not meet your interests.
___________ concerns the probability that the strategy or tactics that negotiators use at the bargaining table will result in an undesirable outcome.
___________ risk concerns the probability that the negotiator is incorrect about the BATNA.
___________ regards the risks in arriving at and living up to a negotiated agreement.
___________ Concerns an individuals belief about the risk that exists, whether real or no.
Perception of Risk
___________ is a related concept that pertains to an individual’s perception of certainty in a (favorable) result.
___________ is a phenomenon where an individual focuses on non-existent facts and how they could potentially affect the negotiation.
___________ refers to the unjustified level of confidence that individuals have in their own ability or a positive outcome.
___________ Concerns a negotiators’ belief in his or her ability to claim resources effectively (e.g., “gain the upper hand;” “persuade others to make the most concessions”).
_________ Concerns a negotiator’s belief in her or his ability to create resources (e.g., “establish rapport;” “find tradeoffs”).
___________ Is an individuals subjective determination of the perceived level or risk they are willing to accept.
Parties will seek these types of fairness in the negotiation process.
procedural fairness; and substantive fairness
____________ Approach to fairness in a negotiation seek to afford all parties to the relationship an equal share to any resources or interests at stake or subject to division.
___________ Approach to fairness in a negotiation focuses on the contribution of all parties to the situation or relationship.
___________ approach posits that a party to a situation should receive a share of the resources or benefits based upon her level of need.
___________ evaluates the negotiator’s social standing with regard to the other party.
Which of the following is/are (a) method(s) for a negotiator in a superior social position to seek to reduce the emotional response to the disparity.
Alter the Inputs
- Alter the Outcomes
- Cognitively Distort Inputs or Outcomes
Positive emotions generally have positive consequences for negotiations. True or False.
Procedural aspects of the negotiation (such as running into an impasse, or the anxiety of beginning a negotiation) can give rise to negative emotions, such as a competitive mind-set. True or False.
_________ is an ability to ideate upon and come up with approaches or solutions to the issues or conflicts at the heart of the negotiation.
___________, one step in a process of problem solving (Preparation, Incubation, Illumination, and Verification), allows for unconscious processing of the situation.
___________ allow for a rational approach to problem-solving.
___________ is a technique used to stimulate creativity in groups, in which the goal is to increase the quality and quantity of group ideas by encouraging free exchange and by removing criticism.
____________ is a method that proceeds towards a single answer.
____________ is a method of thinking about a problem that moves outward from the problem in many possible directions and involves thinking without boundaries, flexibility of categories, and originality of thought.
___________ Entails applying deductive and inductive reasoning approaches to a negotiation.
___________ regards the practices of seeking or giving notice only to information that confirms or reaffirms one’s beliefs or understanding.
___________ focuses upon cognitive consistency.
___________ is the process of hypothesis testing or trial and error from given information. It tends to be more focused on convincing or persuading others.
___________ Means breaking problems into solvable parts.
___________ Is a creative negotiator searching for manners of aligning and realigning interests.
__________ is a type of integrative solution in which a new option is created that satisfies both parties’ vital interests.
__________ Is a tactic to make the other party feel whole by reducing their costs.
__________ Is an agreement where one negotiator receives what she wants, and the other is compensated (or paid) by some method that was initially outside the bounds of negotiation.
__________ are agreements wherein negotiators make bets based upon their differences in beliefs, forecasts, risk profiles, and interests.
To be effective, contingency contracts require:
- Clarity and measurability
- Seeking feedback
__________ concerns the inaccessibility of knowledge in one’s own mind because of initial encoding.
__________ is the ability to apply a strategy or idea learned in one situation to solve a problem in a different, but relevant, situation.
__________ is when a person attempts to transfer a solution from one context to a superficially similar one.
__________ is when a person applies solutions and strategies that have meaningful similarities, rather than superficial ones.
__________ is the principle stating that the more prevalent a group or category is judged to be, the easier it is for people to bring instances of this group or category to mind.
Availability heuristic (bias)
__________ is the belief that others are more similar to ourselves in attitudes and behaviors than is actually the case.
False consensus effect
__________ is a heuristic based on stereotypes - a phenomenon where, the more a person looks like the stereotype of a member of a certain group, the more we are inclined to categorize them as belonging to that group.
__________ is the tendency for people to discount perfectly valid information and instead rely on a single, vivid data point.
Base rate fallacy
___________ is the tendency for people to treat chance events as though they have a built-in, evening-out mechanism when, in fact, each event is independently determined.
___________ is the tendency to attribute an outcome to a particular factor, when that factor is not the driving force or even related to the outcome.
___________ is the tendency of people to continue to believe that something is true even when it is revealed to be false or has been disproved.
___________ Is the tendency to see invalid correlations between events.
___________ enable observers to deal with perceived inequities and maintain belief in a “just world”.
____________ is the tendency to develop unwarranted, negative impressions of others who suffer misfortunes.
____________ Is the human tendency to be remarkably adept at inferring a process once the outcome is known but unable to predict outcomes when only the processes and precipitating events are known.
____________ Is a phenomenon in which, once we know the outcome of an event, we perceive the outcome to be an inevitable consequence of the factors leading up to it.
____________ Is a phenomenon that occurs when a problem solver bases a strategy on familiar methods and cannot readily switch to another method.
____________ is the negative effect of prior experience on a negotiator’s ability to develop strategies that are of sufficient breadth and generality in a problem-solving situation.
___________ Is the inability or unwillingness of an individual to see things holistically, rather than focusing on pieces of the situations that lead to a particular position or conclusion.
____________ concerns the unwarranted levels of confidence in people’s judgment of their abilities and the occurrence of positive events and underestimates of the likelihood of negative events.