1. US Court System

US Court System

Playlist: 32 videos: 75 Minutes


Topic Material

US Courts (Intro)

What is the authority for federal and state judicial systems?

All About Federal and State Court Personal and Subject Matter Jurisdiction

Members of Judicial System

How do cases arrive before appellate courts?


Topic: Outline

Introduction to the US Court System
This chapter discusses the purpose, design, and members of the state and federal court systems (collectively, “court system”). It explores the authority for the court system under the Constitution; the authority of the court to hear types of disputes; the ability to exercise control over individuals; and the role of administrative, trial, and appellate courts. Understanding these aspects of the court system is foundational to internalizing how laws are developed and enforced against those governed. Recognizing the authority for state and federal administrative and judicial courts, aside from relating valuable civic knowledge, provides an understanding of the systemic approach developed to administer laws as they affect business practice. Further, understanding the structure of the court system allows for strategic decision-making by businesses manages to avoid legal violations and enforce their legal rights. For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see US Courts (Intro)

Authority for Creation of Article III Courts
  • Article III - “One supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.”
  • Article III courts and tribunals are appointed by the President and are confirmed by the Senate.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is the Authority for Article III Courts?

Authority for the Creation of Article I Courts
  • Article I - Article I of the Constitution establishes the executive branch.
  • President has authority to preside over certain administrative agencies and legislative courts created by Congress.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is the Authority for Article I Courts?

Authority for the Creation of Article II Courts
  • Article II - Creates the legislative branch of the Federal Government.
  • Congress has to delegate regulatory powers to executive agencies - if an "intelligible principle”.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is the authority for courts under Article II?

Authority for the Creation of Article IV Courts
  • Article IV - Authorizes US Territorial Courts

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is the authority for Article IV Territorial Courts?

Authority for the Creation of State Courts
  • US Constitution allows federal and state governments = structurally similar.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is the authority for State Courts?

Authority of Article III Courts
  • US Supreme Court
  • Federal Appellate Courts
  • Ancillary Federal Courts
  • District Courts

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see Authority for Article III Courts?

Authority of Article I Courts
  • Legislative Courts
  • Administrative Courts.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is the Authority for Article I Administrative Courts?

Authority of Article VI Courts
  • Territorial Courts = federal jurisdiction in select jurisdictions.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is the Authority for Article VI Courts?

Authority of State Courts
State governments establish courts pursuant to Articles III and I of their respective state constitutions. The generally structure for the state court system is outlined below.

Article III State Courts

  • Supreme Court
  • Appellate Court
  • Superior Courts (Superior Trial Court)
  • Intermediate Trial Court
  • Courts of Limited or Special Jurisdiction
    • Municipal Court
    • Magistrate Court (Often called Small Claims Court)
    • Probate Courts
    • Family Courts
    • Courts of Equity

Article I State Courts

  • Administrative courts for state agencies

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What are the types and authority of state courts?

Subject-Matter Jurisdiction
  • General Subject-Matter Jurisdiction
  • Limited Subject-Matter Jurisdiction
    • The subject matter of a case,
    • The amount in controversy (or possible penalty for a crime), or
    • where individuals are located or reside.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is Subject-Matter Jurisdiction?

Federal Subject-Matter Jurisdiction
  • Federal Question Jurisdiction
  • Federal Jurisdiction when the US is a Party
  • Suits Between States
  • Diversity Suits between Citizens of Different States (Civil Cases)
    • Requirement of Diversity of Citizenship
    • Jurisdictional Amount

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is Federal Court Subject-Matter Jurisdiction?

State Subject Matter Jurisdiction

General Jurisdiction

  • Act violates a state criminal law and was committed within the state;
  • Civil action involves a state law, or
  • Citizen of the state is a party to a civil action.

Limited Jurisdiction

  • Expressly allowed and jurisdiction set by the law creating the special court.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is State Court Subject-Matter Jurisdiction?

Federal Trial Courts Hear State Law (and Vice Versa)

Trial Courts - Yes, under specific circumstances.

  • Erie Doctrine

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see Can a Federal trial courts hear state matters & vice versa?

Federal Appellate Courts Hear State Law (and Vice Versa)

Appellate Courts

  • Authority of Federal Circuit Court vs Intermediate Appellate Court
  • Authority of US Supreme Court vs State Supreme Court

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see Can a Federal appellate court hear federal matters & vice versa?

Personal Jurisdiction
  • Criminal Case
    • State Court
    • Federal Court
  • Civil Case
    • Serving a Summons

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is "Personal Jurisdiction"?

Federal Court Personal Jurisdiction
  • Rule 4 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see How to establish Federal Court Personal Jurisdiction?

State Court Personal Jurisdiction
  • Service of Process
  • “Long-arm statute”

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see How to establish State Court Personal Jurisdiction?

Long-Arm Statute
  • Out-of-State Service of Process
  • 14th Amendment Protections
    • Minimum Contacts with State
    • Fair Play and Substantial Justice

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is a "Long-Arm Statute"?

Venue
  • What venue is proper?
  • When will court transfer venue?

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, https://thebusinessprofessor.com/knowledge-base/venue/

Primary Players in Judicial System
The legal system has a number of diverse contributors. Each plays a unique role is a quite intricate system. The primary players discussed in this chapter include:

  • Judges - Article III and Article II
  • Jurors - 6th & 7th Amendments
  • Private and Public Lawyers (and their staff) - 5th & 14th Amendments

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see Who are the primary players in the state judicial system?

Types of Judges

Federal System

  • Federal District Court Judges
  • Federal Magistrate Judges
  • Federal Circuit Court Judges
  • US Supreme Court Justices
  • Judges for Special Article I Courts:
    • Federal Administrative Judges
    • Specialty Court Judges

State Judicial System

  • Local Municipal Court Judges
  • State Magistrate Judges
  • Intermediate State Court Trial Judges
  • Superior Court Judges
  • State Appellate Court Judges
  • State Supreme Court Justices
  • State Administrative Judges
  • Specialty Court Judges

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What types of judges are part of the judiciary?

Duties of Trial Judges
  • Applying Procedural Law
  • Applying Substantive Law
  • Role as Fact-Finder

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What are the duties of trial judges in the legal system?

Duties of Appellate Judges
  • Record of Trial & “de novo review”
  • Application of the Law (Procedural and Substantive)
  • Constitutionality of the Law
  • Effect = Developing the Common Law

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What are the duties of Appellate Judges & Justices?

Appeal to US Circuit Court
  • US Courts of Appeals

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see US Circuit Court?

Appeal to US Supreme Court
  • US Supreme Court

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see US Supreme Court?

Appeal from Legislative or Administrative Courts
  • Appeals from Legislative and Administrative Courts

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see Appeals from Legislative and Administrative Courts

Appeals in State Courts
  • Appeals in the State Court System

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see Appeals in the state court system?

What do Jurors Do?
  • Civil Cases - The 6th and 7th Amendments limitations.
  • Criminal Cases - 5th and 14th Amendment due process considerations.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is the role of "jurors" in the judicial system?

Number of Jurors Required
  • Number of Jurors - “Petit Jury” & Rule 48 of FRCP.
  • Unanimous Vote
  • Majority Vote
  • Jury Findings

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What number of jurors and juror votes are required for guilt or liability?

What Do Attorneys Do?
  • Areas of Practice
  • Duties to Clients
    • Fiduciaries
    • Court Representation
  • Officers of Court

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What do Attorneys do?

Other Members of Judicial System
  • Process Servers
  • Clerks of Court
  • Court Reporter
  • Bailiff
  • Paralegals & Law Clerks
  • Staff Attorneys
  • Prosecutors & Public Defendants
  • Law Professors
  • Law Journals
  • Bar Associations

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see Who are the other players in the judicial system?

Judicial Restraint vs Judicial Activism
  • Judicial Restraint
  • Judicial Activism

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see Theories of Judicial Review: Judicial Restraint vs. Judicial Activism


Flash Card - Study Practice

Q1
The authority for the federal and state judicial systems is found in the US and state ____________.

Q2
The following is Article ____ of the US Constitution: “The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.”

Q3
The US Supreme Court is the only court specifically established by the Constitution? True or False

Q4
The Federal District Courts, Federal Circuit Courts a federal courts subordinate to the Supreme Court and created by ________?

Q5
Article I of the US Constitution creates the ______ branch of the Federal Government.

Q6
Pursuant to the authorization of Article I, Congress has the authority to create inferior courts under the US Supreme Court? True or False

Q7
________ has the authority to create legislative courts and a limited ability to delegate law-making authority to other branches.

Q8
The Supreme Court has ruled that Congress has the latitude to delegate regulatory powers to ____________.

Q9

Q10
Congress delegates to the administrative agencies the responsibility for _____________.

Q11
Administrative agencies, under the supervision of the executive branch, establish administrative courts to adjudicate disputes arising pursuant to agency regulations? True or False

Q12
Article ___ of the Constitution establishes the executive branch.

Q13
The President authority to preside over certain administrative agencies and legislative courts created by Congress. True or False

Q14
Administrative courts are a type of _________.

Q15
Article ___ authorizes the establishment of US Territorial Courts, such as those of Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and the US Virgin Islands.

Q16
Article ___ of the US Constitution provides for both federal and state governments.

A16
Article IV

Q17
The ____ Amendment to the US Constitution provides for a state’s right of self-governance.

A17
10th Amendment

Q18
Article ____ of the Constitution establishes the US Supreme Court as the highest court in the land.

Q19
The US Supreme Court provides appellate review of __________.

Q20
These courts serve as the appellate court for matters decided by judge or jury in the District Court.

Q21
These are the Article III trial courts for the federal system.

Q22
Article I federal courts include:

A22
Legislative Courts, and Administrative Courts

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/authority-for-administrative-courts/

Q23
________ are those created by Congress pursuant to authority granted under Article I to handle special jurisdictional matters.

Q24
_______ courts are those created to adjudicate disputes of a particular administrative agency.

Q25
These are territorial courts specially created to act as the court of general jurisdiction in select federal jurisdictions.

A25
Article IV Courts

Q26
State governments establish courts pursuant to _________ of their respective state constitutions.

A26

Q27
The State Supreme Court is generally the highest court in a state. True or False

Q28
Cases generally go before the Supreme Court via __________

A28
A. Writ of Certiorari or Appeals by Losing Party

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-supreme-courts/

Q29
Each state has a trial court with _______ jurisdiction empowered by the state constitution to hear any matter of state law.

Q30
Trial courts generally employ juries as triers of fact. True or False

Q31
__________ are state trial courts of limited jurisdiction.

A31
Intermediate Trial Courts

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-supreme-courts/

Q32
Most states designate special courts to hear cases of a particular subject matter, such as:

A32
Municipal Courts; Magistrate Courts; Probate Courts

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-supreme-courts/

Q33
All state constitutions allow for administrative agencies to handle_____________.

A33

Q34
_______________ jurisdiction refers to the types of cases that a court can hear (preside over).

Q35
This means that the state court has the authority to hear any type of case involving state law.

A35
General Subject-Matter Jurisdiction

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/subject-matter-jurisdiction-in-courts/

Q36
Often state courts divide (or limit) jurisdiction of their courts based on the following:

A36

Every state in the US has at least one court of general, subject-matter jurisdiction.

Q38
A federal trial court has subject-matter jurisdiction in the following types of case:

A38
Federal Question Cases; Diversity Actions; Suits between States; Government is a Party

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/federal-subject-matter-jurisdiction/

Q39
____________ jurisdiction is based upon, or arises out of, a federal law or the US Constitution.

A39
Federal Question Jurisdiction

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/federal-subject-matter-jurisdiction/

Q40
Federal courts have exclusive subject-matter jurisdiction in civil or criminal lawsuits ______________.

A40
Against the Federal Government; Between State Governments

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/federal-subject-matter-jurisdiction/

Q41
Federal courts have non-exclusive subject-matter jurisdiction in civil lawsuits between citizens of different states, known as _________.

Q42
___________ allows citizens of different states to go to trial in federal court, even if the claims are pursuant to state law.

Q43
The conditions required for subject-matter jurisdiction based upon diversity are __________.

A43
Diversity of Citizenship, and $75K in Controversy

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/federal-subject-matter-jurisdiction/

Q44
In _________________ cases, all plaintiffs must be citizens of different states from all defendants.

Q45
In ____________ cases, only one plaintiff must be from a different state from one defendant.

Q46
_____________ means the state court may hear any type of case under state law.

A46
General subject-matter jurisdiction

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-subject-matter-jurisdiction/

Q47
A state court of general jurisdiction has subject-matter jurisdiction in the following situation(s):

A47
An act violates a state criminal law and was committed within the state; A civil dispute involves a state law, or A citizen of the state is a party to a civil action.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-subject-matter-jurisdiction/

Q48
A state court with _______ can only hear cases expressly allowed by the law creating the special court.

A48
Limited Subject-matter Jurisdiction

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-subject-matter-jurisdiction/

Q49
Courts of limited jurisdiction are commonly limited by:

A49
The subject-matter of the case; The dollar amount in controversy

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-subject-matter-jurisdiction/

Q50
A state trial court may hear a case involving a federal question under certain circumstances. True or False

Q51
A state court cannot hear cases involving a legal situation in which ____________

Q52
A federal trial court may hear a state-law case under certain circumstances. True or False

Q53
For a federal court to hear a state law matter, it must have subject-matter jurisdiction over some legal issue in the case, such as:

A53
The case may involve a mixture of state and federal law; or the the case is a “diversity action”

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/can-state-courts-hear-federal-matters-and-vice-versa/

Q54
A state court hearing issues of state law case may apply federal law to adjudicate a federal law issue. True or False

Q55
A federal court has subject-matter jurisdiction over diversity cases that involve ________.

Q56
The federal court hearing a diversity case will apply the substantive law of ___________.

A56

Q57
The court will apply federal procedural law unless the federal procedural law would __________.

Q58
The ________ states that federal courts hearing a diversity case should apply the state procedural law if federal procedural law would affect the outcome of the case.

Q59
Federal trial court decisions are appealed to ___________.

Q60
Federal District Courts and Courts of Appeal cannot review decisions from state court cases. True or False

Q61
State trial or appellate courts can never undertake appellate review of decisions from federal court cases. True or False

Q62
State trial court decisions are appealed to the __________.

Q63
The US Supreme court may review decisions of state supreme courts. True or False

Q64
The US Supreme Court will review a state supreme court’s decision if it appears to _________.

A64
Conflict with a federal state; Conflict with the Constitution

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/can-state-courts-hear-federal-matters-and-vice-versa-2/

Q65
The US Supreme Court may review a State Supreme Court’s case by: ___________.

A65
Writ of certiorari; Request for Appeal by Losing Party

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/can-state-courts-hear-federal-matters-and-vice-versa-2/

Q66
A court must have this type of jurisdiction in each case ____________.

A66
Subject-matter Jurisdiction; and Personal Jurisdiction

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/personal-jurisdiction-2/

Q67
_____________ regards the court’s authority to hear a certain type of case.

A67
Subject-matter jurisdiction

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/personal-jurisdiction-2/

Q68
_____________ regards the authority for a court to exercise jurisdiction over an individual.

A68
Personal jurisdiction

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/personal-jurisdiction-2/

Q69
In a criminal case, a court has personal jurisdiction over the defendant if the defendant _____________.

A69
Committed the alleged criminal conduct within the court’s geographic jurisdiction

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/personal-jurisdiction-2/

Q70
A federal court will have personal jurisdiction over a defendant committing any criminal activity __________.

A70
Anywhere within the United States.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/personal-jurisdiction-2/

Q71
Establishing personal jurisdiction in civil cases requires that the court _______________.

A71
Serve the defendant with a summons

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/personal-jurisdiction-2/

Q72
Provide sufficient legal notice of the proceeding), also known as ___________.

A72

Q73
The federal court must employ the law governing personal jurisdiction that is applicable __________.

A73
In the state in which the federal court is located; to all federal jurisdiction; internationally

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/federal-personal-jurisdiction/

Q74
The federal court may also use the state’s long-arm statute to reach defendants outside of the state’s geographic boundary. True or False

Q75
Service of process means providing an individual with a ______.

Q76
________ gives notice to the individual that she is being called before the court.

Q77
Absent a Long-Arm Statute, service of process must generally take place (the summons must be delivered) while the defendant is ______.

A77
Physically present within that state.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/personal-jurisdiction-in-state-court/

Q78
A ________ allows for service of process on defendants outside of the state.

Q79
A state’s long-arm statute must comply with the 14th Amendment’s _______ .

A79
Due Process Protections

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-long-arm-statute/

Q80
A state’s long-arm statute will only allow for service of process on individual if the defendant _______

A80
Minimum Contacts with the State

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-long-arm-statute/

Q81
A foreign defendant’s contact with the state must be sufficient to not offend notions of

A81
fair play and substantial justice

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-long-arm-statute/

Q82
Examples of situations where a defendant has minimum contacts via its long-arm statute include when:

A82
she is a resident of the state; she owns property in the state; she committed the controversial activity in the state; the business entity organized in state

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/state-long-arm-statute/

Q83
_______ is the physical location (within the state or federal circuit) where the trial is conducted.

Q84
The appropriate venue is generally the courthouse located in the county, district, or precinct that is _______.

A84
Closely related to the matter in controversy

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/venue/

Q85
Venue will generally be in a location related to the dispute in controversy, such as ______

A85
Where a tort took place; Where a contract was signed; Where the defendant lives

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/venue/

Q86
A court may transfer venue if ____

A86
There is a more appropriate location; One party is unfairly disadvantaged; Both parties request a transfer

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/venue/

Q87
Who are the primary players in the judicial system?

A87
Judges; Jurors; Private and Public Lawyers

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/primary-players-in-judicial-system/

Q88
What types of judges are part of the judiciary?

A88
Federal System: Federal District Court Judges, Federal Magistrate Judges. Federal Circuit Court Judges, US Supreme Court Justices, Judges for Special Article I Courts: Federal Administrative Judges & Specialty Court Judges; State Judicial System: Local Municipal Court Judges; State Magistrate Judges; Intermediate State Court Trial Judges; Superior Court Judges; State Appellate Court Judges; State Supreme Court Justices; State Administrative Judges & Specialty Court Judges. Some jurisdictions may have special names, designations, qualifications, etc., for judges presiding over a specific court.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/types-of-judges-in-state-and-federal-judiciary/

Q89
What is the federal trial court?

Q90
What is the federal appeals court?

Q91
What is the highest federal court?

Q92
Federal court that hears pre-trial and post-trial matters?

Q93
Courts with jurisdiction over hearings to enforce city ordinances?

Q94
Specialty court judges who preside over county or small claims courts?

Q95
The highest trial court in a state is a court of ________

Q96
What types of judge presides over agencies created by the state legislature?

Q97
Which of the following are potential roles of the trial judge in the judicial process?

A97
Apply Procedural Law; Apply Substantive Law; Serve as Fact Finder; Apply Equity

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/trial-court-judges/

Q98
The judge marshals the proceeding and presentation of evidence in accordance with ______.

Q99
The judge may NEVER serve as fact-finder in a case without a jury? True or False

Q100
_______ is the inherent power of a judge to act in accordance with principles of fairness or justice when the law does not provide an adequate remedy through money damages.

Q101
________ serves as legal reviewer of trial court decisions.

Q102
The appellate court does not generally make determinations about the facts of the case, except in special circumstances (known as “de novo review”). True or False

Q103
The appellate judges determine if the law was applied correctly to the case. True or False

Q104
Appellate judges look for trial court errors regarding ________.

A104
Substantive and Procedural Law

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/appeal-to-us-federal-circuit-court/

Q105
Appellate judges determine whether the trial court came to the correct decision? True or False

A105
False - They determine whether the law was applied correctly, and whether the law is constitutional.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/appeal-to-us-federal-circuit-court/

Q106
Any law or government action that violates the constitutional rights of an individual is _____________.

Q107
Appellate court decisions issued when reviewing a case become part of the __________.

Q108
How do cases arrive before the appellate courts?

A108
Appeal by a party; Referral of the Trial Judge

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/appeal-to-us-federal-circuit-court/

Q109
The US Courts of Appeal hear cases appealed from the _____________.

Q110
An appeal of a single issue before the case at trial has been decided is known as __________.

Q111
The US Supreme Court accepts cases for review via two methods:

A111
Writ of Certiorari; or Appeal by any party to a case.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/appeal-to-us-supreme-court/

Q112
In general, parties appearing before legislative courts have direct rights of appeal to Article III Courts (District or Circuit Courts). True or False

Q113
A party wishing to appeal a legislative court’s decision must first _________.

A113
Exhausting Administrative Remedies

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/appeal-from-administrative-courts/

Q114
The appellate procedure in state court is similar to that of the federal system. True or False

Q115
Which clause(s) of the Constitution guarantee(s) the right to trial by jury in criminal and civil cases, with certain exception?

Q116
In civil cases, the right to a jury trial is linked to a dollar amount in controversy between the parties. True or False

Q117
In criminal cases in which a party faces potential imprisonment a defendant is NOT allowed a jury trial. True or False

Q118
When a jury trial is warranted, the number of jurors required is known as ______

Q119
Rule 48 of FRCP states that, a “Court shall seat a jury of not fewer than _____ and not more than _____ members.”

Q120
Most courts (state and federal) require unanimous vote by the jury to find the defendant ________.

Q121
Many states allow for a finding of civil liability with a _______ vote by jurors.

A121

Q123
Attorneys practicing in the courtroom are:

A123
Fiduciaries; Officers of the Court

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-do-attorneys-do/

Q124
__________ deliver legal documents (serve process) to individuals being called into court.

Q125
______ run the office that manages all publicly filed court documents for that jurisdiction.

Q126
The _________ records and transcribes the official record of the court.

Q127
The _________ controls security in the courtroom and carries out the orders of the court.

Q128
Proponents of __________ believe that the judiciary’s power of review should not be used except in unusual cases.

Q129
Proponents of ________ support the use of the judiciary’s power of review.



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