1. International Law

International Law

Playlist: 22 Videos: 66 Minutes



Topics: Learning Material

Introduction to International Law
International law concerns the laws agreed to and observed by nations and its citizens. More specifically, international law may include the rules applicable to dealings between two countries. It may also include the laws applicable to a transaction between individuals from separate countries. This chapter introduces the concept of international law and the categories of public and private international law before providing context for its application. This includes international relations and private international transactions. It identifies the primary international organizations charged with promulgating international legal standards. It then identifies the body primarily charged with resolving disputes that arise pursuant to those standards. It reviews the primary methods for transacting business in foreign markets and the legal risks inherent in each. It then reviews the primary US laws that affect international business practice, such as the import and export of goods. Lastly, it reviews the primary methods for resolving disputes in private international transactions. For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see International Law (Intro)

What is “International Law”?
  • Relations between nations or countries and their citizens.
  • Agreement upon common understanding between two or more separate nations.
  • Establishes standards or expectations for conduct between nations and between or by the citizens (including businesses)

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is "international law"?

What are the Type of International Law?

Public International Law - relationships between nations and the rules that are binding upon countries in the international community.

Private International Law - concerns disputes between individuals or businesses (not nations)

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What are the types of international law?

United Nations
  • “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war”.
  • provides all member nations a forum to voice concerns about threats to peace and stability.
  • 15 nations make up the UN Security Council.
  • Five countries hold permanent seats on the council (United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom)

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see United Nations

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law
  • develops model standards and procedures for dealing with issues affecting international business.
  • promulgated the Convention on International Sale of Goods (CISG).

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see United Nations Commission on International Trade law

United Nations Conference on Trade Development
  • addresses matters of international trade reform.
  • seeks to foster international trade globally with the purpose of providing trade benefits among developing countries.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see United Nations Conference on Trade Development

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • military alliance among 28 member countries.
  • programs to promote peace and international dialogue.
  • provides a judicial system for adjudicating breaches of international peace, known as the International Court of Justice.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see North Atlantic Treaty Organization

International Monetary Fund
  • purpose of fostering global monetary policy, commerce, and trade.
  • increase employment levels, drive economic growth, and reduce poverty.
  • makes loans to developing countries,
  • provides stable exchange rates between currencies,
  • establishes policies for currency exchange among commercial banks,
  • conducts statistical and economic analysis of economies, and
  • monitors economies while encouraging sound economic policies.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see International Monetary Fund

Other Economic Development Organizations
  • international organization of 35 countries
  • propose of fostering economic development and international trade.
  • provides model policies for countries to implement and facilitates the negotiation of treaties among participant countries.
  • World Customs Organization (WCO)
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see Other Economic Development Organizations

World Bank
  • financial institution that promotes economic development in developing countries
  • division of the World Bank Group,
  • made up of 5 international organizations
  • Loans or grants are generally issued for infrastructure, health, or education purposes.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see World Bank

World Trade Organization
  • Replaced the GATT
  • provides a framework for developing trade agreements between countries.
  • provides a forum and procedure for resolving trade disputes between its member countries.
  • developed the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see World Trade Organization

European union
  • group of 27 European countries
  • promote economic and social prosperity among the nations.
  • provides a standardized legal system governing trade and commerce among the nations
  • use a single currency known as the EURO.

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see European Union

International Courts
  • UN Security Council
  • UN International Court of Justice (ICJ)
  • International Criminal Court (ICC)
  • WTO Appellate Body (Appellate Body)
  • International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What international courts exist and what are their functions?

Methods of Doing International Business
  • International Sales

Direct Sales

Sales to Retailers and Distributors

  • Licenses or Franchises

• Direct Foreign Investment

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What are the methods of carrying on international business?

Legal Risks in International Business
  • Governing Laws
  • Enforcing Legal Rights
  • Political Stability

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What are the legal risks associated with carrying on international business?

International Agreement Affecting Trade
  • Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, & Navigation (FCN)
  • Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT)
  • Example: NAFTA

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What major international agreements affect international trade?

When is Business in a Foreign Country Illegal?
  • The US issues embargoes
  • Prohibitions against carrying on business transactions - such as international trading - against certain countries.
  • The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), a division of the US Department of Treasury, is charged with carrying out full embargoes and targeted sanctions against countries.
  • OFAC may designate persons or companies as “specially designated nationals” (DSNs).

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see When is carrying on business in a foreign country prohibited by US law?

Boycotts between Countries
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Treasury (DOT)

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What is the significance of boycotts between foreign countries?

US Laws Limited Foreign Business
  • Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996
  • USA Patriot Act of 2001 (Patriot Act)
  • Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)
  • US laws applicable to business operations :

Employment laws

Environmental Laws

Tax Laws

Antitrust Laws

Foreign Bank Account Reporting

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What US laws apply to limiting business transactions in foreign countries?

Regulations Applicable to Exports
  • US Export Administrative Regulations (EAR) cover the export and reexport of most commercial items,
  • Establish export requirements depending upon the product or service being exported and the destination country.
  • EAR places licensing requirements on certain types of exports.
  • The Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS)

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What regulations apply to exports from the United States?

Limitations on Importing Goods into US
  • The Customs Modernization Act (CMA)
  • The Trademark Act of 1946 (Trademark Act)
  • Regulations of Various Products

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see What are the legal limitations on importing goods into the United States?

Enforcing Private International Agreements
  • Alien Tort Claims Act grants jurisdiction to US federal district over “any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States.”
  • Suing Foreign Firms in the US
  • Arbitration

Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention)

Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see How are private international business agreements generally enforced?

What Rules Apply to Private International Disputes
  • Choice-of-Law Clause
  • Forum Selection Clause
  • Arbitration Clauses

For further written and video explanation, discussion and practice questions, see How do parties determine the rules, location, and method of resolving disputes?


Flashcard: Study Practice

Q1
______________ includes all of the generally accepted rules that govern the relations between nations or countries and their citizens. It is an agreement upon common understanding between two or more separate nations.

Q2
Developing and employing an international legal framework in this manner provides additional certainty and stability between nations and between individuals. True or False.

Q3
______________ examines relationships between nations and the rules that are binding upon countries in the international community. It also governs the relationship between states and international entities.

Q4
Public international law originates largely from _________________.

A4
the direct agreements or treaties between nations.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-public-and-private-international-law/

Q5
Fields of international law include ____________.

A5
criminal law, maritime law, the law of war, human rights law, refugee law, and the law established by treaties between nations.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-public-and-private-international-law/

Q6
Public international law may employ principles present in ______________.

A6
international conventions, customs of the disputing nations, generally accepted community norms, principles of law recognized by civilized nations, and judicial philosophies or theories of jurisprudence in addressing conflicts between nations.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-public-and-private-international-law/

Q7
__________________ primarily concerns disputes between individuals or businesses (not nations) in situations where the law of more than one nation may apply (often referred to as international conflict of law).

Q8
Private international law addresses the questions of _____________.

A8
(1) which jurisdiction may hear a case, and (2) the law concerning which jurisdiction applies to the issues in the case.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-public-and-private-international-law/

Q9
Parties typically utilize _____________ to provide mutual understanding and some degree of continuity to international business transactions.

Q10
In the event of conflict, the parties may voluntarily or involuntarily submit the dispute to a legal system to interpret the agreement in accordance with the laws of either or both nations. True of False.

Q11
______________ formed after Word War II “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war”. It is made up of a representative from nearly every commonly recognized country in the world. This structure provides all member nations a forum to voice concerns about threats to peace and stability.

Q12
Collectively, the UN focuses on measures and collaborative efforts to _______________.

Q13
A select group of 15 nations make up the ________________, which is a body that analyzes potential threats to world peace and has the authority to intervene through diplomatic efforts and recommend military action.

Q14
Five countries hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council, which are:

A14
United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-united-nations-and-how-does-it-affect-international-law/

Q15
Each of the permanent counsel countries has the power to veto any counsel proposal made to the greater UN body. True of False

Q16
_________________ is a affiliate organization to the UN made up of business and legal professionals. This group develops model standards and procedures for dealing with issues affecting international business.

A16
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-united-nations-commission-on-international-trade-law/

Q17
UNCITRAL promulgated the __________________, which is a model law commonly used as the governing provisions in contracts between parties from different nations.

A17

Q18
___________________ is a UN affiliate organization that addresses matters of international trade reform that seeks to foster international trade globally with the purpose of providing trade benefits among developing countries.

A18
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTD)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-united-nations-conference-on-trade-and-development/

Q19
__________________ is a military alliance among 28 member countries to promote peace and international dialogue. Member nations agree to provide collective support to member nations in the event of attack by non-member nations. It also provides a judicial system for adjudicating breaches of international peace, known as the International Court of Justice.

A19
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-north-atlantic-treaty-organization-nato/

Q20
______________ is an international organization of 35 countries with the propose of fostering economic development and international trade. The objective of the organization is to develop common policies and understanding with regard to international trade practices. It provides model policies for countries to implement and facilitates the negotiation of treaties among participant countries.

A20
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-international-monetary-fund/

Q21
__________________ is an international organization of member governments focused on the development of international model rules and instruments to facilitate international trade. It focuses on the aspects of international trade commonly enforced through a country’s customs agency.

A21
World Customs Organization (WCO)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-international-monetary-fund/

Q22
_______________ is an intergovernmental organization of 14 oil-producing nations. It negotiates oil production policies among member nations with the purpose of stabilizing oil markets, including the supply, demand, and prices stabilization.

A22
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-international-monetary-fund/

Q23
_________________ is similar to an international bank with the underlying purpose of fostering global monetary policy, commerce, and trade. The intended result is to increase employment levels, drive economic growth, and reduce poverty. It makes loans to developing countries, provides stable exchange rates between currencies, establishes policies for currency exchange among commercial banks, conducts statistical and economic analysis of economies, and monitors economies while encouraging sound economic policies.

A23
International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-international-monetary-fund/

Q24
__________________ is a financial institution that promotes economic development in developing countries with the purpose of fostering economic strength and reducing poverty through increased foreign investment and international trade. It is a division of the World Bank Group, which is an affiliate of the United Nations.

Q25
___________________ provides a framework for developing trade agreements between countries. The purpose of this organization is to foster trade and competition while avoiding trade practices that detriment society at large. It also provides a forum and procedure for resolving trade disputes between its member countries.

A25
World Trade Organization (WTO)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-world-trade-organization/

Q26
__________________ is a model agreement that deals with recognition and enforcement of intellectual property rights among signatory nations. Specifically, it seeks to curb the theft or misuse of intellectual property through the international sale of counterfeit goods or copyrighted property.

A26
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-world-trade-organization/

Q27
________________ is a group of 27 European countries banded together the promote economic and social prosperity among the nations. Most notably, it has a pseudo-governmental body made up of representatives of member countries. It provides a standardized legal system governing trade and commerce among the nations that allows for the movement persons, goods, capital and the provision of services across borders. Perhaps most notably, most countries use a single currency known as the EURO.

A27
The European Union (EU)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-european-union/

Q28
International courts exist as a result of agreement between nations as to their formation and authority. The authority of the court over a country or its citizens may result from ____________________.

A28
that country becoming a member of an international organization or signatory to an international agreement.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-are-there-international-courts-and-their-function/

Q29
While not technically a court, _________________ claims jurisdiction over all countries with regard to activities potentially disturbing or jeopardizing world peace. This group may investigate and make determinations regarding activity potentially jeopardizing world peace.

A29
The United Nations Security Council. These investigations may end in a recommendation for action by the UN (or its member nations) to address the threatening activity through sanctions or military intervention.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-are-there-international-courts-and-their-function/

Q30
The _________________ is the judicial branch of the United Nations. It provides advisory opinions to international agencies concerning international law. Further, it adjudicates matters or disputes submitted to the court by the party countries or nations.

A30

Q31
______________ was formed pursuant to a multilateral treaty, known as the Rome Statute. It adjudicates criminal matters in the international context. The court will only hear a criminal matter when national courts will not or cannot prosecute individuals for the alleged criminal conduct.

Q32
The Appellate Body hears appeals from disputes addressed by WTO panels. These panels often serve as arbitrator for disputes submitted to the panel by WTO members. The Appellate Body consists of seven individuals from WTO countries who act as appellate judges in reviewing panel decisions.

Q33
___________________ is a UN sanctioned court that provides a system for adjudicating the law as it applies to the ocean and its resources. 167 countries are signatories to the agreement establishing this court. Notably, the court hears matters of mining on sea floors that are outside of a nation’s geographic boundaries, territorial seas, the contiguous zone, and the continental shelf.

A33
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-are-there-international-courts-and-their-function/

Q34
A US company can carry out international sales by either ____________.

A34
selling directly to customers, selling to retailers, or selling to distributors (who then sell to retailers).

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/methods-of-carrying-on-international-businesss/

Q35
Direct sales to customers may be achieved through _____________.

A35
foreign-listed websites, catalogs, and international mail.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/methods-of-carrying-on-international-businesss/

Q36
The export of goods to retailers is generally carried out through a complicated payment process using ___________.

Q37
A letter of credit, like a certified check, says that the bank will _______________.

A37
make payment to a financial institution presenting the letter of credit for payment.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/methods-of-carrying-on-international-businesss/

Q38
The letter of credit ensures a confirming bank that the issuing bank will release funds to the confirming bank upon receipt of a ________.

A38
“bill of lading”. A bill of lading is a document identifying the goods for sale under the contract and stating that goods have been shipped.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/methods-of-carrying-on-international-businesss/

Q39
___________ a brand or other intellectual property is the process of allowing a third-party to use the licensed subject matter for a fee.

Q40
___________ is a formalized process of licensing a brand, intellectual property, and operational plans to third parties who pay for the privilege.

Q41
_______________ Is when a business enters a foreign market by combining in some way with a business that already carries on business in the foreign market.

Q42
The competitive risks associated with carrying on business in a foreign market are numerous, including:

A42
understanding the foreign market, cultural risks, communicating in a foreign language, legal risk, political risk, and understanding the competitive environment can be extremely difficult.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/legal-risks-and-considerations-in-international-business/

Q43
Generally, the parties to a contract choose the laws that control business agreements. True of False.

Q44
Enforcing one’s rights in a foreign country will depend upon ____________.

Q45
The United States has entered into two types of treaty with multiple countries regarding the trade and shipment of goods.

A45
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, & Navigation (FCN); Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/types-of-international-agreement-affecting-us-trade/

Q46
_______________ are commerce agreements that the US maintains with over two-dozen countries. Many of these agreements have been replaced by other specific agreements.

A46
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, & Navigation (FCN)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/types-of-international-agreement-affecting-us-trade/

Q47
______________ are agreements that provide provisions for foreign countries (or its citizens) owning businesses within another country. The US is currently involved in over 40 such agreements with foreign nations.

Q48
_____________ are prohibitions against carrying on business transactions with certain countries.

Q49
_________________, a division of the US Department of Treasury, is charged with carrying out embargoes and “targeted sanctions” against countries.

A49
The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/when-is-foreign-business-prohibited-under-us-law/

Q50
OFAC may designate persons or companies as ________________________, that are treated with the same restrictions as the country to which they are designated. This keeps US citizens or businesses from using intermediaries to carry on business with a company subject to embargo.

A50
“specially designated nationals” (SDNs)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/when-is-foreign-business-prohibited-under-us-law/

Q51
The US is currently a part of several official boycott of countries or individuals. True of False.

A51
False. In fact, the US recognizes two prohibitions against US companies taking part in unsanctioned boycotts. These prohibitions are issued by the Department of Commerce or the Department of Treasury.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-significance-of-boycotts-on-international-law/

Q52
The _______________ and _______________ prohibits US companies from participating in any unsanctioned boycott of other countries or its citizens.

A52
Department of Commerce (DOC); Department of Treasury (DOT)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-is-the-significance-of-boycotts-on-international-law/

Q53
This act prohibits doing business with companies that have been linked to terrorism.

A53
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-us-laws-prohibit-business-practices-in-foreign-countries/

Q54
______________ prohibits individuals or companies from providing material support to any foreign individual, organization, or company engaging in terrorist activity. “Material support” may include providing money, assets, information, etc.

Q55
________________ was passed to prevent businesses using bribes to gain an unfair business advantage. It prohibits a business, its employees, or agents from offering or giving anything of value to a foreign official for the purpose of gaining an unfair business advantage. A foreign official includes government officials, candidates for office, political parties, any person who knows the money will be offered, given, or promised to a foreign official for purposes of securing improper advantage.

Q56
US laws applicable to business operations may apply to the business’s foreign operations as well. The concept of applying US laws to businesses or operations outside of the United States is known as ________________.

Q57
Types of US laws that apply to US businesses operating in foreign jurisdictions include:

A57
Employment laws, Tax Laws, Antitrust law, Environmental Laws, and Bank Reporting Laws.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-us-laws-prohibit-business-practices-in-foreign-countries/

Q58
______________________ Are employment laws that apply to US companies carrying on business abroad, as well as companies controlled by a US employer.

A58
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-us-laws-prohibit-business-practices-in-foreign-countries/

Q59
___________________ (Rules) cover the export and re-export of most commercial items, including some civilian and military grade items.

A59
US Export Administrative Regulations (EAR)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-laws-apply-to-the-export-of-goods-from-the-us/

Q60
An export includes any item ________________.

A60
transported outside of the country, whether temporary or permanent and whether sold, gifted, or transferred to a US subsidiary. This includes shipments originating in the US, shipped through the US, or being returned from the US to another country.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-laws-apply-to-the-export-of-goods-from-the-us/

Q61
______________ is charged with implementing EARs. EARs also establish requirements for end-user control of licensed exports.

A61
The Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-laws-apply-to-the-export-of-goods-from-the-us/

Q62
____________________, administered by the State Department, govern the export of any defense articles or services. Defense services may include design, development, engineering, manufacturing, assembly testing, destruction, etc., of defense items.

A62
The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-laws-apply-to-the-export-of-goods-from-the-us/

Q63
_______________ requires importers to declare attributes of imported goods with the Customs and Border Protection Agency (CBP). Typically, when goods are shipped into the US, the importer (or her agent) must complete documents disclosing the nature, value, origin, and other information about the goods.

Q64
The Customs and Border Protection Agency (CBP) may assess additional duties on goods imported for sale at abnormally low prices. This is known as _________________.

A64
“anti-dumping” and “countervailing duties”.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/what-are-limitations-on-importing-goods-into-the-us-for-resale/

Q65
____________________ prohibits the importation of products that mislead the public as to the point or origin, manufacturer, or brand. This includes importing items under a protected trademark that does not belong to the importer or purchaser of imported goods. Any such goods are subject to forfeiture or may be released to the importer upon adequate assurance of removing the deceptive markings or destroying the items.

Q66
When a dispute involves multiple parties from multiple countries, it becomes an issue as to how and where to handle the dispute. In the United States, the _______________ grants jurisdiction to US federal district courts over “any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States.”

Q67
Plaintiffs may bring a legal action in federal court (the US District Court) against a foreign individual or business if ______________.

A67
the requirements for personal and subject-matter jurisdiction are met. That is, the Plaintiff must show that the foreign defendant has “minimum contacts” with the United States. In some cases, having significant assets in the United States will be sufficient to exercise jurisdiction over the foreign party.

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/how-are-private-international-agreements-enforced/

Q68
_______________ is a treaty between many signatory countries (approximately 50 in total) that agree to recognize and enforce arbitration awards. Within the US, the recognition and collection of arbitration awards are carried out by filing the arbitration award with the country’s judicial system.

A68
Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/how-are-private-international-agreements-enforced/

Q69
UNCITRAL promulgates the ________________, which is the default rule when an international agreement fails to indicate a different controlling law.

A69
Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

Resource Video: https://thebusinessprofessor.com/how-are-private-international-agreements-enforced/

Q70
A _____________ clause in a contract indicates the law that will govern the contractual relationship and any disputes arising thereunder. These clauses may identify the substantive and procedural law of a particular country, international treaty, or model law.

Q71
A ________________ clauses in a contract indicates the appropriate venue for adjudicating disputes arising under the contract or business arrangement. It may also indicate a particular judicial body or geographic location.

Q72
________________ generally require arbitration, indicate the rules that will apply, and designate the individuals or body to decide the dispute.


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