Holder of a Negotiable Instrument - Explained
Who Qualifies as a Holder of a Negotiable Instrument?
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Who is a holder of commercial paper?
A holder is one who has possession of and is entitled to enforce the instrument. So, a person who is named as payee and possesses an instrument is a holder. If the commercial paper is not payable to a particular person (i.e., it is payable to anyone in possession of the paper), anyone who has possession is a holder. An individual who is issued a note or draft is a holder. A person can also become a holder by receiving the draft through negotiation of the instrument. Negotiation is discussed separately.
Note: There are certain exceptions for this rule when the instrument is forged (i.e., the signature of the payor or payee is not genuine). A forged signature does not make the instrument payable to the forger or validly make the instrument bearer paper. A thief or finder of bearer paper, however, is a holder.
Example: Harriet writes a check to John. John is a holder of this draft. If he indorses the check and transfers it to Kyle, Kyle is the new holder. If, however, Kyle had stolen the check from John and forged Johns signature, Kyle is not a legal holder of the paper, as he is not legally entitled to enforce the instrument.
Next Article: What is Negotiability of a Commercial Instrument Back to: COMMERCIAL PAPER
Why do you think the definition of a holder excludes certain individuals who do not gain possession of the paper through a legal method?
Gary writes a check to Hannah. Irene steals the check from Hannah's mailbox and endorses the check to herself. Is Hannah a holder of the draft? Why?
- Commercial Paper (Intro)
- What is Commercial Paper?
- Negotiable Instrument
- What are the common types of commercial paper?
- Promissory Note
- Cashier's Check
- Convenience Check
- Certified Check
- Substitute Check
- Bill of Exchange
- Bank Draft Definition
- Sight Draft Definition
- Bankers Acceptance
- Who is a Holder of a negotiable instrument?
- Commercial Paper Funding Program
- What is Negotiability and why is it important?
- What is required for commercial paper to be negotiable?
- Sum Certain (Contracts)
- Inflation Adjustment Clause
- When does commercial paper contain an Unconditional promise to pay?
- Backup Line of Credit
- What is Payable on Demand or Payable on Time?
- What is Order Paper and Bearer Paper?
- Bearer Form
- How is a payee identified on the negotiable instrument?
- What rules does the court apply in determining negotiability?
- How is commercial paper negotiated to a holder?
- What is Transfer of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorsement of a negotiable instrument?
- What are the various types of indorsement?
- Bank Endorsement
- Blank Endorsement
- Accommodation Endorsement
- How does a holder receive payment on a negotiable instrument?
- Who is potentially liable on (or obligated to pay) a negotiable instrument?
- When is an individual liable for a representative signing a negotiable instrument?
- What rules apply if a holder loses a negotiable instrument?
- When is payment of a negotiable instrument overdue?
- What effect does a negotiable instrument have on the underlying obligation?
- What is a holder in due course?
- What are the requirements for a holder to become a holder in due course?
- Receive an instrument for value?
- Receive an instrument in good faith?
- Receive an instrument without notice of a valid defense?
- How does discharge of the Underlying Obligation affect a holder in due course?
- What is the Shelter Rule?
- Can you limit a transferee from becoming a holder in due course?
- Personal Defenses?
- Real Defenses?
- What is a Claim in Recoupment?
- What are the rights of a holder in due course if the instrument involves a consumer transaction?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Forged?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Stolen?
- Guaranty or Guarantee
- Letter of Guarantee
- Personal Guarantee
What is the role of a Guarantor or Surety of a negotiable instrument?
- Accommodation Paper Definition
- Secondary Liability
- Avalize Definition
- What is an Accord & Satisfaction?
- What is primary and secondary liability on an instrument?
- What is Drawer or Maker Liability for a negotiable instrument?
- What is Transferor Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorser Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Presentment Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is a warrantors liability for a dishonored note or draft?
- What is the time limitation for warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- When are the warranties of a negotiable instrument discharged?