Lost Negotiable Instruments - Explained
What happens when the commercial paper is lost?
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What rules apply if a holder of a negotiable instrument loses the instrument?
An obligor is generally only obligated to pay the instrument upon presentment. If an instrument is lost and has not been presented to the obligor for payment, the obligor may pay the instrument when the party losing the instrument requests payment (without actual presentment of the instrument). Paying the proper payee of a lost instrument will discharge the obligors duty to pay the instrument, including satisfying the obligor's obligations to other parties who may find the lost instrument. To be entitled to payment of a lost instrument, the payee losing the instrument must prove:
- Possession - She was in possession and entitled to enforce when instrument was lost;
- Accidental Loss - The loss was not the result of transfer or lawful seizure;
- Location Unknown - The instrument's location cannot be determined; and
- Instrument Terms - She must provide adequate evidence of the terms of instrument.
Even if these condition are met, the payee must provide adequate protection, such as a surety bond, to protect the payor in the event the instrument is wrongfully paid.
Note: State statutory or common law may provide a cause of action against and individual who has no property rights in an instrument but presents a lost instrument for payment. These state law protections are pursuant to property law and not part of the UCC.
Next Article: Overdue Payment of Negotiable Instrument Back to: COMMERCIAL PAPER
Why do you think the UCC allows for payment of a lost instrument? How do you feel about the obligation to pay a holder who finds lost bearer paper? Should there be additional protections under the UCC for holders who lose commercial paper?
Martin is the payee on a note. The note is negotiable, bearer paper. Martin indorses the paper with the purpose of transferring it to Fran. He somehow loses the paper. What must Martin do to seek payment of the note? Can Fran seek payment? What happens if Jason finds the note and presents it to the maker for payment?
- Commercial Paper (Intro)
- What is Commercial Paper?
- Negotiable Instrument
- What are the common types of commercial paper?
- Promissory Note
- Cashier's Check
- Convenience Check
- Certified Check
- Substitute Check
- Bill of Exchange
- Bank Draft Definition
- Sight Draft Definition
- Bankers Acceptance
- Who is a Holder of a negotiable instrument?
- Commercial Paper Funding Program
- What is Negotiability and why is it important?
- What is required for commercial paper to be negotiable?
- Sum Certain (Contracts)
- Inflation Adjustment Clause
- When does commercial paper contain an Unconditional promise to pay?
- Backup Line of Credit
- What is Payable on Demand or Payable on Time?
- What is Order Paper and Bearer Paper?
- Bearer Form
- How is a payee identified on the negotiable instrument?
- What rules does the court apply in determining negotiability?
- How is commercial paper negotiated to a holder?
- What is Transfer of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorsement of a negotiable instrument?
- What are the various types of indorsement?
- Bank Endorsement
- Blank Endorsement
- Accommodation Endorsement
- How does a holder receive payment on a negotiable instrument?
- Who is potentially liable on (or obligated to pay) a negotiable instrument?
- When is an individual liable for a representative signing a negotiable instrument?
- What rules apply if a holder loses a negotiable instrument?
- When is payment of a negotiable instrument overdue?
- What effect does a negotiable instrument have on the underlying obligation?
- What is a holder in due course?
- What are the requirements for a holder to become a holder in due course?
- Receive an instrument for value?
- Receive an instrument in good faith?
- Receive an instrument without notice of a valid defense?
- How does discharge of the Underlying Obligation affect a holder in due course?
- What is the Shelter Rule?
- Can you limit a transferee from becoming a holder in due course?
- Personal Defenses?
- Real Defenses?
- What is a Claim in Recoupment?
- What are the rights of a holder in due course if the instrument involves a consumer transaction?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Forged?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Stolen?
- Guaranty or Guarantee
- Letter of Guarantee
- Personal Guarantee
What is the role of a Guarantor or Surety of a negotiable instrument?
- Accommodation Paper Definition
- Secondary Liability
- Avalize Definition
- What is an Accord & Satisfaction?
- What is primary and secondary liability on an instrument?
- What is Drawer or Maker Liability for a negotiable instrument?
- What is Transferor Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorser Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Presentment Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is a warrantors liability for a dishonored note or draft?
- What is the time limitation for warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- When are the warranties of a negotiable instrument discharged?