Liability to Pay a Negotiable Instrument - Explained
Who has the Obligation to Pay
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Who is potentially liable on (obligated to pay) a negotiable instrument?
The maker of a note or drawee of a draft is primarily obligated to pay the instrument. If the maker or drawee pays the note or draft, it is satisfied. If, however, the maker or drawee fails to honor the note or draft, anyone who held and then transferred the instrument may be liable to pay it. These third parties are secondarily liable to pay the instrument. By transferring the instrument, they warrant that the instrument being held is valid and payable. This is known as transfer warranty.
An individual who signs an instrument as indorser is also potentially liable to pay the instrument if it is dishonored. This is known as indorser liability. Generally, an indorser is also a transferor and incurs potentially liability as a transferor and indorser; however, in some cases, a third party will indorse and instrument but not be a holder or transferor of the instrument. This is common when third parties are asked to co-sign or act as guarantor of the note. The warranties provided by transferors and indorsers of a negotiable instrument (and other parties potential liability to pay the instrument) are discussed separately.
Note: Generally, a holder must present an instrument for payment and that demand must be denied before the holder can seek payment from an transferor or indorser.
Next Article: Liability for Negotiable Instrument Signed by Agent Back to: COMMERCIAL PAPER
Why do you think the law makes transferors and indorsers secondarily liable on the instrument? How does transferor and indorser liability relate to the nature of a negotiable instrument?
Olivia is the holder of a note. She presents the note to the payor for payment. The payor rejects the note and refuses to pay. What are Olivia's options for seeking payment?
- Commercial Paper (Intro)
- What is Commercial Paper?
- Negotiable Instrument
- What are the common types of commercial paper?
- Promissory Note
- Cashier's Check
- Convenience Check
- Certified Check
- Substitute Check
- Bill of Exchange
- Bank Draft Definition
- Sight Draft Definition
- Bankers Acceptance
- Who is a Holder of a negotiable instrument?
- Commercial Paper Funding Program
- What is Negotiability and why is it important?
- What is required for commercial paper to be negotiable?
- Sum Certain (Contracts)
- Inflation Adjustment Clause
- When does commercial paper contain an Unconditional promise to pay?
- Backup Line of Credit
- What is Payable on Demand or Payable on Time?
- What is Order Paper and Bearer Paper?
- Bearer Form
- How is a payee identified on the negotiable instrument?
- What rules does the court apply in determining negotiability?
- How is commercial paper negotiated to a holder?
- What is Transfer of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorsement of a negotiable instrument?
- What are the various types of indorsement?
- Bank Endorsement
- Blank Endorsement
- Accommodation Endorsement
- How does a holder receive payment on a negotiable instrument?
- Who is potentially liable on (or obligated to pay) a negotiable instrument?
- When is an individual liable for a representative signing a negotiable instrument?
- What rules apply if a holder loses a negotiable instrument?
- When is payment of a negotiable instrument overdue?
- What effect does a negotiable instrument have on the underlying obligation?
- What is a holder in due course?
- What are the requirements for a holder to become a holder in due course?
- Receive an instrument for value?
- Receive an instrument in good faith?
- Receive an instrument without notice of a valid defense?
- How does discharge of the Underlying Obligation affect a holder in due course?
- What is the Shelter Rule?
- Can you limit a transferee from becoming a holder in due course?
- Personal Defenses?
- Real Defenses?
- What is a Claim in Recoupment?
- What are the rights of a holder in due course if the instrument involves a consumer transaction?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Forged?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Stolen?
- Guaranty or Guarantee
- Letter of Guarantee
- Personal Guarantee
What is the role of a Guarantor or Surety of a negotiable instrument?
- Accommodation Paper Definition
- Secondary Liability
- Avalize Definition
- What is an Accord & Satisfaction?
- What is primary and secondary liability on an instrument?
- What is Drawer or Maker Liability for a negotiable instrument?
- What is Transferor Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorser Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Presentment Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is a warrantors liability for a dishonored note or draft?
- What is the time limitation for warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- When are the warranties of a negotiable instrument discharged?