Liability for Negotiable Instrument Signed by Agent - Explained
When is the Principal or Agent Liable?
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Table of ContentsWhen is an individual (including businesses) liable for a representative signing a negotiable instrument?Discussion QuestionPractice QuestionAcademic Research
When is an individual (including businesses) liable for a representative signing a negotiable instrument?
If a representative (an agent) signs a commercial instrument on behalf of a the represented person or business (the principal), the principal is bound and made liable by the representative signing either the principals name or the agents name. The representative is not liable on the instrument if:
- the form of the signature shows unambiguously that the signature is made on behalf of the represented person, and
- the instrument identifies the represented person.
This standard goes beyond the contract law standards for agent authority and principal liability.
Note: Special rules apply for promoters of business entities that do not yet exist.
Next Article: Lost Negotiable Instruments Back to: COMMERCIAL PAPER
- How does a holder receive payment on a negotiable instrument?
- Who is potentially liable on (or obligated to pay) a negotiable instrument?
- When is an individual liable for a representative signing a negotiable instrument?
- What rules apply if a holder loses a negotiable instrument?
- When is payment of a negotiable instrument overdue?
Why do you think the standard for holding a principal liable for an agents signature on a negotiable instrument is more broad than under agency law? Do you think an agent should have the ability to subject a principal to liability in the context of negotiable instruments? Why or why not? Should any additional regulations or other protections apply in this scenario?
Marshal is an agent of Clayton. Marshal signs a promissory note on behalf of Clayton and transfers it to Travis. What procedures must Travis have followed to make Clayton responsible for Marshals actions?