Authority for Article I Federal Courts
Article I federal courts include “legislative courts” & “administrative courts”. Legislative courts are those created by Congress pursuant to authority granted under Article II to handle special jurisdictional matters. Administrative courts are those created to adjudicate disputes of a particular administrative agency.
• Note: Examples of legislative and administrative courts include: D.C. judiciary, D.C. Court of Appeals, D.C. Superior Court, US Court of Appeals for Armed Forces, (Several Military courts of Appeal), US Court of Appeals for Military Claims, Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals, Civilian Board of Contract Appeals, Board of Immigration Appeals, US Immigration Courts, Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences, Trademark Trial and Appeal Board, US Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals, US Court of Federal Claims, US Tax Court, US Bankruptcy Courts, Social Security Administration Office of Disability Adjudication and Review, US Merit Systems Protection Board, Board of Veterans’ Appeals, US Courts-Martial, Guantanamo Military Commissions, and US Court of Military Commission Review.
• Practice Question: Lawrence, a member of the US Army, is charged with deserting his unit at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. He is later apprehended by state police and extradited back to military control. The military decides to bring charges against him for the crime of desertion under the military code of justice. What is the authority for bringing criminal charges against Lawrence and who oversees the process?